Herwaldt BL, 1999. Leishmaniasis. Lancet 354 :1191–1199.
Cupolillo E, Grimaldi G Jr, Momen H, 1994. A general classification of New World Leishmania using numerical zymotaxonomy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :296–311.
Grimaldi G Jr, Tesh RB, 1993. Leishmaniases of the New World: current concepts and implications for future research. Clin Microbiol Rev 6 :230–250.
World Health Organization, 1990. Control of the Leishmaniasis. Technical Report Series 793. Geneva: WHO, 21–25.
Bernasconi VE, 1928. Contribución al estudio de la distribución geográfica de la leishmaniosis en la República Argentina. Bol Inst Clin Quirug Bs As 15 :325–328.
Sosa Estani S, Campanini A, Sinagra A, Luna C, Peralta M, Coutada V, Medina L, Riarte A, Salomón D, Gomez A, Segura EL, 1998. Características clínicas y diagnostico de la leishmaniasis mucocutánea en pacientes de un área endémica de Salta. Medicina 58 :685–691.
Borzone RA, 1928. Leishmaniosis tegumentaria americana vegetante con localizaciones viscerales. Bol Inst Clin Quirug Bs As 15 :329–333.
Segura EL, Juan N, Piquin ALM, Cuba Cuba CA, Abramo Orrego L, Mc Mahon-Pratt D, Montamat EE, Momen H, Grimaldi G Jr, 2000. Molecular and biologic characterization of Leishmania parasites implicated in an epidemic outbreak in northwestern Argentina. Parasitol Res 86 :504–508.
Frank FM, Fernandez MM, Taranto NJ, Cajal SP, Margni RA, Castro E, Thomaz-Soccol V, Malchiodi EL, 2003. Characterization of human infection by Leishmania spp. in the Northwest of Argentina: immune response, double infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and species of Leishmania involved. Parasitology 126 :31–39.
Marco JD, Padilla AM, Diosque P, Fernández MM, Malchiodi EL, Basombrío MA, 2001. Force of infection and evolution of lesions of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northwestern Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96 :649–652.
Padilla AM, Marco JD, Diosque P, Segura MA, Mora MC, Fernandez MM, Malchiodi EL, Basombrío MA, 2002. Canine infection and the possible role of dogs in the transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniosis in Salta, Argentina. Vet Parasitol 110 :1–10.
Evans D, 1989. Handbook on Isolation, Characterization, and Cryopreservation of Leishmania. Geneva: WHO, 1–45.
Hashiguchi Y, Gomez EAL, De Coronel VV, Mimori T, Kawabata M, Furuya M, Nonaka S, Takaoka H, Alexander JB, Quizhpe AM, Grimaldi G Jr, Kreutzer RD, Tesh RB, 1991. Andean leishmaniasis in Ecuador caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana and L. major-like parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 :205–217.
Kreutzer RD, Christensen HA, 1980. Characterization of Leishmania spp. by isozyme electrophoresis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29 :199–208.
Bañuls AL, Jonquieres R, Guerrini F, Le Pont F, Barrera C, Espinel I, Guderian R, Echeverria R, Tibayrenc M, 1999. Genetic analysis of Leishmania parasites in Ecuador: Are Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and Leishmania (V.) guyanensis distinct taxa? Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :838–845.
Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen IB, vNei M, 2001. MEGA2. Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17 :1244–1245.
Cupolillo E, Brahim LR, Toaldo CB, Oliveira-Neto MP, Felinto de Brito ME, Falqueto A, Farias Naiff M, Grimaldi G Jr, 2003. Genetic polymorphism and molecular epidemiology of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from different hosts and geographic areas in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 41 :3126–3132.
Schiriefer A, Shiriefer ALF, Góes-Neto A, Guimaraes LH, Carvalho LP, Almeida RP, Machado PR, Lessa HA, Ribeiro de Jesus A, Riley LW, Carvalho EM, 2004. Multiclonal Leishmania braziliensis population structure and its clinical implication in a region of endemicity for American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Infect Immun 72 :508–514.
Saravia NG, Segura I, Holguin AF, Santrich C, Valderrama L, Ocampo C, 1998. Epidemiologic, genetic, and clinical associations among phenotipically distinct populations of Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :86–94.
Ishikawa EAY, Silveira FT, Magalhaes ALP, Guerra RB Jr, Melo MN, Gomes R, Siveira TGV, Shaw JJ, 2002. Genetic variation in populations of Leishmania species in Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96: S1/111–S1/121.
Magalhaes-Rocha NM, Melo NM, Dias M, Michalick MSM, da Costa CA, Mayrink W, Williams P, 1989. Characterization of Leishmania strains isolated from dogs in an endemic area of Minas Gerais State-Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 84 (SII):41.
Cuba Cuba CA, Miles MA, Vexenat A, Barker DC, McMahon Pratt D, Butcher J, Barreto CA, Marsden PD, 1985. A focus of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Três Braços, Bahia, Brazil: characterization and identification of Leishmania stocks isolated from man and dogs. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79 :500–507.
Vasconcelos IAB, Vasconcelos AW, Fe Filho NM, Queiroz RG, Santana EW, Bozza M, Sallenave SM, Valim C, David JR, Lopes UG, 1994. The identity of Leishmania isolated from sand flies and vertebrate hosts in a major focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Baturite, Northeastern of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :158–164.
Rosa AC, Cuba CC, Vexenat A, Barreto AC, Marsden PD, 1988. Predominance of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in the regions of Três Braços and Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82 :409–410.
Reithinger R, Davies CR, 1999. Is the domestic dog (canis familiaris) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? A critical review of the current evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :530–541.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||326||126||0|
Sixteen Leishmania stocks, 15 isolated from patients with cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL), or recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis, plus one from a dog with CL in Salta and Corrientes Provinces, Argentina, were studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Thirteen of the stocks from humans were grouped in two zymodemes; nine termed as KMS 1, four as KMS 2, and assigned to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Two additional stocks from CL cases expressed a KMS 4 enzyme profile, corresponding to L. (V.) guyanensis. Although the parasites from the dog were also assigned to L. (V.) braziliensis, its zymodeme, KMS 3, was not expressed in any of the current human isolates. The characterization of Leishmania from a dog was done for the first time in Argentina. The importance of the intraspecific polymorphism in the induction of clinical forms and in the host-reservoir concept is briefly discussed, based on the zymodeme data of isolates from humans and dogs. The presence of L. (V.) guyanensis was confirmed in the country.