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SEROINCIDENCE AND PHYLOGENY OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTIONS IN A COHORT OF COMMERCIAL SEX WORKERS IN MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY

JOSE VIÑOLESHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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MARGARITA SERRAHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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JOSE C. RUSSIHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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DORA RUCHANSKYHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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SERGIO SOSA-ESTANIHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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SILVIA M. MONTANOHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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GLADYS CARRIONHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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LINDSAY M. EYZAGUIRREHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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JEAN K. CARRHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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JAMES G. OLSONHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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CHRISTIAN T. BAUTISTAHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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JOSE L. SANCHEZHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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MERCEDES WEISSENBACHERHIV/AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay; Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland

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A cohort study involving 60 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative male transvestite commercial sex workers (CSWs) was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay in 1999–2001. Serum samples were tested for HIV by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening with immunoblot confirmation. Six participants seroconverted for an incidence-density rate of 6.03 (95% confidence interval = 2.21–13.12) per 100 person-years. Inconsistent condom use during client sex (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 6.7), during oral sex (AHR = 5.6), and at the last sexual encounter (AHR = 7.8), and use of marihuana (AHR = 5.4) were marginally associated with HIV seroconversion. Five samples were genotyped in the protease and reverse transcriptase regions; three were subtypes B and two were BF recombinants. Full genome analysis of four samples confirmed all three subtype B samples and one of the two BF recombinants. Male transvestite CSWs sustained a high rate of HIV infection. Larger prospective studies are required to better define subtypes and associated sexual and drug-related risk factors.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Jose L. Sanchez, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850.
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