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An outbreak of acute diarrheal disease was reported in Kupang, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, in August 2002. An investigative team carried out a retrospective historical review of records, and a case-control study involving data and specimen collections. Etiologic determination involving stool specimens was based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with a reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction performed for serotyping purposes. Two thousand six hundred probable cases were identified from hospital records during the outbreak months of June, July, August, and September 2002. Previous enteric outbreaks were recognized from the same months in the preceding years and all annual outbreak episodes following a period of prolonged, low rainfall. In contrast to previous outbreaks discerned from trend analysis, the overwhelming burden of disease fell upon the pediatric population versus the young and old in previous outbreak instances. Rotavirus was found to be the causative etiology, with serotype 1 predominating.