• 1

    Thylefors B, Négrel AD, Pararajasegaram R, Dadzie KY, 1995. Global data on blindness. Bull World Health Organ 73 :115–121.

  • 2

    WHO, 1997. Report of the First Meeting of the WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 3

    Schachter J, West SK, Mabey D, Dawson CR, Bobo L, Bailey R, Vitale S, Quinn TC, Sheta A, Sallam S, Mkocha H, Faal H, 1999. Azithromycin in control of trachoma. Lancet 354 :630–635.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Melese M, Chidambaram JD, Alemayehu W, Lee DC, Yi EH, Cevallos V, Zhou Z, Donnellan C, Saidel M, Whitcher JP, Gaynor BD, Lietman TM, 2004. Feasibility of eliminating ocular Chlamydia trachomatis with repeat mass antibiotic treatments. JAMA 292 :721–725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Anderson R, May R, 1991. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

  • 6

    Lietman T, Porco T, Dawson C, Blower S, 1999. Global elimination of trachoma: how frequently should we administer mass chemotherapy? Nature Med 5 :572–576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Holm SO, Jha HC, Bhatta RC, Chaudhary JS, Thapa BB, Davis D, Pokhrel RP, Yinghui M, Zegans M, Schachter J, Frick KD, Tapert L, Lietman TM, 2001. Comparison of two azithromycin distribution strategies for controlling trachoma in Nepal. Bull World Health Organ 79 :194–200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Lynch M, West S, Munoz B, Frick KD, Mkocha HA, 2003. Azithromycin treatment coverage in Tanzanian children using community volunteers. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 10 :167–175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Bartlett MS, 1956. Deterministic and Stochastic Models for Recurrent Epidemics. Berkeley, CA: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability 4: 81–110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Bratley P, Fox BL, Schrage LE, 1987. A Guide to Simulation. New York: Springer-Verlag.

  • 11

    Bailey N, 1957. The Mathematical Theory of Epidemics. London: Griffin.

  • 12

    Lloyd AL, 2004. Estimating variability in models for recurrent epidemics: assessing the use of moment closure techniques. Theor Popul Biol 65 :49–65.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Reinhard J, Weber A, Nizetic B, Kupka K, Maxwell-Lyons F, 1968. Studies in the epidemiology and control of seasonal conjunctivitis and trachoma in southern Morocco. Bull World Health Organ 29 :497–545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    da Cruz L, Dadour IR, McAllister IL, Jackson A, Isaacs T, 2002. Seasonal variation in trachoma and bush flies in north-western Australian Aboriginal communities. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 30 :80–83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Emerson PM, Cairncross S, Bailey RL, Mabey DC, 2000. Review of the evidence base for the ‘F’ and ‘E’ components of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Trop Med Int Health 5 :515–527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Jha H, Chaudary J, Bhatta R, Miao Y, Osaki-Holm S, Gaynor B, Zegans M, Bird M, Yi E, Holbrook K, Whitcher JP, Lietman T, 2002. Disappearance of trachoma in western Nepal. Clinical Infectious Diseases 35 :765–768.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 167 57 9
PDF Downloads 28 16 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

SEASONAL EFFECTS IN THE ELIMINATION OF TRACHOMA

DAVID C. LEEFrancis I. Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, California; California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California

Search for other papers by DAVID C. LEE in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
JAYA D. CHIDAMBARAMFrancis I. Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, California; California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California

Search for other papers by JAYA D. CHIDAMBARAM in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
TRAVIS C. PORCOFrancis I. Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, California; California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California

Search for other papers by TRAVIS C. PORCO in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
THOMAS M. LIETMANFrancis I. Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, California; California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California

Search for other papers by THOMAS M. LIETMAN in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

The World Health Organization currently recommends annual mass antibiotic treatment to eliminate the ocular chlamydia that cause blinding trachoma. Active trachoma is believed to be seasonal in many areas of the world, and the optimal season in which to treat has not as yet been established. Here we use mathematical models of disease transmission to demonstrate that ideally, treatment should be administered before the low season to have the greatest chance of locally eliminating infection.

Save