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    Maizels RM, Denham DA, 1992. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC): immunopharmacological interactions of an anti-filarial drug. Parasitology 105 (Suppl):S49–S60.

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    Steel C, Guinea A, Ottesen EA, 1996. Evidence for protective immunity to bancroftian filariasis in the Cook Islands. J Infect Dis 174 :598–605.

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    Elson LH, Guderian RH, Araujo E, Bradley JE, Days A, Nutman TB, 1994. Immunity to onchocerciasis: putative immune individuals produce a Th1-like response to Onchocerca volvulus.J Infect Dis 169 :588–594.

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    Turaga PS, Tierney TJ, Bennett KE, McCarthy MC, Simonek SC, Enyong PA, Moukatte DW, Lustigman S, 2000. Immunity to onchocerciasis: cells from putatively immune individuals produce enhanced levels of interleukin-5, gamma interferon, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to Onchocerca volvulus larval and male worm antigens. Infect Immun 68 :1905–1911.

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    Day KP, Grenfell B, Spark R, Kazura JW, Alpers MP, 1991. Age-specific patterns of change in the dynamics of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 :518–527.

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    Bleiss W, Oberlander U, Hartmann S, Adam R, Marko A, Schonemeyer A, Lucius R, 2002. Protective immunity induced by irradiated third-stage larvae of the filarial Acanthocheilonema viteae is directed against third-stage larvae before molting. J Parasitol 88 :264–270.

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    Taylor MJ, Van Es RP, Shay K, Folkard SG, Townson S, Bianco AE, 1994. Protective immunity against Onchocerca volvulus and O. lienalis infective larvae in mice. Trop Med Parasitol 45 :17–23.

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    Lange AM, Yutanawiboonchai W, Lok JB, Trpis M, Abraham D, 1993. Induction of protective immunity against larval Onchocerca volvulus in a mouse model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 :783–788.

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    Trees AJ, Graham SP, Renz A, Bianco AE, Tanya V, 2000. Onchocerca ochengi infections in cattle as a model for human onchocerciasis: recent developments. Parasitology 120 (Suppl):S133–S142.

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    Martin C, Al-Qaoud KM, Ungeheuer MN, Paehle K, Vuong PN, Bain O, Fleischer B, Hoerauf A, 2000. IL-5 is essential for vaccine-induced protection and for resolution of primary infection in murine filariasis. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 189 :67–74.

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    Le Goff L, Loke P, Fahimeda Ali H, Taylor DW, Allen JE, 2000. Interleukin-5 is essential for vaccine-mediated immunity but not innate resistance to a filarial parasite. Infect Immun 68 :2513–2517.

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    Bancroft AJ, Grencis RK, Else KJ, Devaney E, 1993. Cytokine production in BALB/c mice immunized with radiation attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi.J Immunol 150 :1395–1402.

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    Martin C, Le Goff L, Ungeheuer M-N, Vuong PN, Bain O, 2000. Drastic reduction of a filarial infection in eosinophilic inter-leukin-5 transgenic mice. Infect Immun 68 :3651–3656.

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    Le Goff L, Lamb TJ, Graham AL, Harcus Y, Allen JE, 2002. IL-4 is required to prevent filarial nematode development in resistant but not susceptible strains of mice. Int J Parasitol 32 :1277–1284.

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    Abraham D, Leon O, Schnyder-Candrian S, Wang CC, Galioto AM, Kerepesi LA, Lee JJ, Lustigman S, 2004. Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil-dependent protective immunity to larval Onchocerca volvulus in mice immunized with irradiated larvae. Infect Immun 72 :810–817.

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    Folkard SG, Hogarth PJ, Taylor MJ, Bianco AE, 1996. Eosinophils are the major effector cells of immunity to microfilariae in a mouse model of onchocerciasis. Parasitology 112 :323–329.

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    Volkmann L, Bain O, Saeftel M, Specht S, Fischer K, Brombacher F, Matthaei KI, Hoerauf A, 2003. Murine filariasis: interleukin 4 and interleukin 5 lead to containment of different worm developmental stages. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 192 :23–31.

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    Volkmann L, Saeftel M, Bain O, Fischer K, Fleischer B, Hoerauf A, 2001. Interleukin-4 is essential for the control of microfilariae in murine infection with the Filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis.Infect Immun 69 :2950–2956.

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    Hoffmann WH, Pfaff AW, Schulz-Key H, Soboslay PT, 2001. Determinants for resistance and susceptibility to microfilaraemia in Litomosoides sigmodontis.Parasitology 122 :641–649.

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    Saeftel M, Arndt M, Specht S, Volkmann L, Hoerauf A, 2003. Synergism of gamma interferon and interleukin-5 in the control of murine filariasis. Infect Immun 71 :6978–6985.

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    Lustigman S, James ER, Wilson T, Abraham D, 2002. Towards a recombinant antigen vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus.Trends Parasitol 18 :135–141.

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    Nacher M, Singhasivanon P, Traore B, Vannaphan S, Gay F, Chindanond D, Franetich JF, Mazier D, Looareesuwan S, 2002. Helminth infections are associated with protection from cerebral malaria and increased nitrogen derivatives concentrations in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 :304–309.

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    Le Hesran JY, Akiana J, Ndiaye el HM, Dia M, Senghor P, Konnate L, 2004. Severe malaria attack is associated with high prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infection among children in rural Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 :397–399.

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    Spiegel A, Tall A, Raphenon G, Trape JF, Druilhe P, 2003. Increased frequency of malaria attacks in subjects co-infected by intestinal worms and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 :198–199.

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3.2 PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY—VACCINES

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