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We describe the epidemiology of malaria in San Dulakudar, a village in Sundargarh District in the state of Orissa in eastern India. Malaria transmission is perennial with Plasmodium falciparum, accounting for greater than 80% of malaria cases. Transmission intensity varies with season with high transmission after the monsoon rains in autumn and winter, low transmission in summer, and intermediate transmission in spring. The anthropophagic mosquito Anopheles fluviatilis was identified as the main vector for malaria transmission. Based on observations of spleen rates and supported by data on malaria parasite prevalence and malaria incidence, San Dulakudar can be classified as a hyperendemic area for P. falciparum malaria. Parasite prevalence and malaria incidence rates decrease with age, suggesting that residents of San Dulakudar develop immunity to malaria. The study demonstrates the presence of regions in the Indian subcontinent such as Sundargarh District where P. falciparum is the primary cause of malaria and where malaria transmission rates are comparable to those found in many parts of Africa.