• 1

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 1999. A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum: Development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 (Suppl):4–19.

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  • 2

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 1999. A retrospective examination of secondary sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum: Development of parasitologic and clinical immunity following secondary infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 (Suppl):20–35.

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  • 3

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 1999. A retrospective examination of secondary sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum in patients previously infected with heterologous species of Plasmodium: Effect on development of parasitologic and clinical immunity. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 (Suppl):36–43.

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  • 4

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 1999. A retrospective examination of patterns of recrudescence in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum.Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 (Suppl):44–48.

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  • 5

    Diebner HH, Eichner M, Molineaux L, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Dietz K, 2000. Modelling the transition to gametocytes from asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum.J Theor Biol 202 :113–127.

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  • 6

    Molineaux L, Diebner HH, Eichner M, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Dietz K, 2001. Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia described by a new mathematical model. Parasitology 122 :379–391.

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  • 7

    McKenzie FE, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 2001. Plasmodium malariae blood stage dynamics. J Parasitol 87 :626–638.

  • 8

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 2002. A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium ovale: development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 :492–502.

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  • 9

    Simpson JA, Aarons L, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, White NJ, 2002. Population dynamics of untreated Plasmodium falciparum malaria within the adult host during the expansion phase of the infection. Parasitology 124 :247–263.

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  • 10

    Eichner M, Diebner HH, Molineaux L, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Dietz K, 2001. Genesis, sequestration, and survival of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. Parameter estimates from fitting a model to malariatherapy data. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 :497–501.

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  • 11

    Molineaux L, Trauble M, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Dietz K, 2002. Malaria therapy reinoculation data suggest individual variation in an innate immune response and independent acquisition of antiparasitic and antitoxic immunities. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 :205–209.

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  • 12

    McKenzie E, Barnwell JW, Jeffery GM, Collins WE, 2002. Plasmodium vivax blood-stage dynamics. J Parasitol 88 :521–535.

  • 13

    McKenzie FE, Jeffery GM, Collins WE, 2002. Plasmodium malariae infection boosts Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte production. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 :411–414.

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  • 14

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Roberts JM, 2003. A retrospective examination of anemia during infection of humans with Plasmodium vivax.Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :410–412.

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  • 15

    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 2003. A retrospective examination of mosquito infection on humans infected with Plasmodium falciparum.Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :366–371.

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  • 16

    Earle WC, Perez M, 1932. Enumeration of parasites in the blood of malarial patients. J Lab Clin Med 17 :1124–1130.

 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A RETROSPECTIVE EXAMINATION OF REINFECTION OF HUMANS WITH PLASMODIUM VIVAX

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  • 1 Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

A retrospective examination was made of archival data collected between 1940 and 1963 to determine the impact of reinfection of patients with Plasmodium vivax with homologous and heterologous strains of the parasite. Following reinfection of 14 patients with a homologous strain, the geometric mean maximum parasite count was reduced from 9,101/μL during the primary infection to 998/μL and the geometric mean daily parasite count for the first 20 days was reduced from 923/μL to 16/μL. Following reinfection of 22 patients with heterologous strains of P. vivax, the geometric mean maximum parasite count was 8,460/μL during the primary infection versus a secondary level of 9,196/μL and the geometric mean daily parasite count decreased from 847/μL/day to 335/μL/day. Reductions in fever episodes ≥101°F and ≥ 104°F appeared to be a more sensitive measure of clinical immunity. Fever episodes ≥104°F in patients with homologous strain reinfections decreased from 1.92 episodes per week to 0.18 compared with 1.24 to 0.57 in patients with heterologous infections. Fever episodes ≥101°F decreased from 2.98 to 0.60 in the homologous strain compared with 2.08 to 1.07 for the heterologous infections. The average maximum fever temperature in the homologous group was 106°F during the primary infection versus 103.4°F for the secondary infection compared with 105.8°F during the primary infections versus 105.6°F for the secondary infection in the heterologous patients.

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