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DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS AND CERCARIAL SHEDDING OF BULINUS NASUTUS AND OTHER SNAILS IN THE MSAMBWENI AREA, COAST PROVINCE, KENYA

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  • 1 Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Helminthology Unit, Hadassah Medical School, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

In the Msambweni area of the Kwale District in Kenya, an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium, potential intermediate-host snails were systematically surveyed in water bodies associated with human contact that were previously surveyed in the 1980s. Bulinus (africanus) nasutus, which accounted for 67% of the snails collected, was the only snail shedding S. haematobium cercariae. Lanistes purpureus was the second most common snail (25%); lower numbers of Bulinus forskalii and Melanoides tuberculata were also recovered. Infection with non-S. haematobium trematodes was found among all snail species. Rainfall was significantly associated with the temporal distribution of all snail species: high numbers of Bulinus nasutus developed after extensive rainfall, followed, in turn, by increased S. haematobium shedding. Spatial distribution of snails was significantly clustered over a range of up to 1 km, with peak clustering observed at a distance of 400 meters. Water lily (Nymphaea spp.) and several aquatic grass species appeared necessary for local colonization by B. nasutus or L. purpureus.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Charles H. King, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Wolstein Research Building, Room 4126, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7286.
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