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SPATIAL PATTERNS OF URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS INFECTION IN A HIGHLY ENDEMIC AREA OF COASTAL KENYA

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Vector Borne Diseases Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

Urinary schistosomiasis remains a major contributor to the disease burden along the southern coast of Kenya. Selective identification of transmission hot spots offers the potential for more effective, highly-focal snail control and human chemotherapy to reduce Schistosoma haematobium transmission. In the present study, a geographic information system was used to integrate demographic, parasitologic, and household location data for an endemic village and neighboring households with the biotic, abiotic, and location data for snail collection/water contact sites. A global spatial statistic was used to detect area-wide trends of clustering for human infection at the household level. Local spatial statistics were then applied to detect specific household clusters of infection, and, as a focal spatial statistic, to evaluate clustering of infection around a putative transmission site. High infection intensities were clustered significantly around a water contact site with high numbers of snails shedding S. haematobium cercariae. When age was considered, clustering was found to be significant at different distances for different age groups.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Charles H. King, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Wolstein Research Building, Room 4126, Case Western Reserve Univeristy School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7286.
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