• 1

    Brabin B, Maxwell S, Chimsuku L, Verhoeff F, van der Kaay HJ, Broadhead R, Kazembe P, Thomas A, 1993. A study of the consequences of malarial infection in pregnant women and their infants. Parassitologia 35 :9–11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Brabin BJ, 1991. The Risks and Severity of Malaria in Pregnant Women. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1–34.

  • 3

    Menendez C, 1995. Malaria during pregnancy: a priority area of malaria research and control. Parasitol Today 11 :178–183.

  • 4

    Nosten F, ter Kuile F, Maelankirri L, Decludt B, White NJ, 1991. Malaria during pregnancy in an area of unstable endemicity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 :424–429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Nosten F, McGready R, Simpson JA, Thwai KL, Balkan S, Cho T, Hkirijaroen L, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, 1999. Effects of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnancy. Lancet 354 :546–549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Singh N, Shukla MM, Sharma VP, 1999. Epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy in central India. Bull World Health Organ 77 :567–572.

  • 7

    Rogerson SJ, Pollina E, Getachew A, Tadesse E, Lema VM, Molyneux ME, 2003. Placental monocyte infiltrates in response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :115–119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Shulman CE, Marshall T, Dorman EK, Bulmer JN, Cutts F, Peshu N, Marsh K, 2001. Malaria in pregnancy: adverse effects on haemoglobin levels and birthweight in primigravidae and multigravidae. Trop Med Int Health 6 :770–778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Menendez C, Ordi J, Ismail MR, Ventura PJ, Aponte JJ, Kahigwa E, Font F, Alonso PL, 2000. The impact of placental malaria on gestational age and birth weight. J Infect Dis 181 :1740–1745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Leopardi O, Naughten W, Salvia L, Colecchia M, Matteelli A, Zucchi A, Shein A, Muchi JA, Carosi G, Ghione M, 1996. Malaric placentas. A quantitative study and clinico-pathological correlations. Pathol Res Pract 192 :892–898, discussion 899–900.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Bulmer JN, Rasheed FN, Morrison L, Francis N, Greenwood BM, 1993. Placental malaria. II. A semi-quantitative investigation of the pathological features. Histopathology 22 :219–225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Meuris S, Piko BB, Eerens P, Vanbellinghen AM, Dramaix M, Hennart P, 1993. Gestational malaria: assessment of its consequences on fetal growth. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 :603–609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Ibhanesebhor SE, Okolo AA, 1992. Placental malaria and pregnancy outcome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 37 :247–252.

  • 14

    Kaushik A, Sharma VK, Sadhna, Kumar R, Mitra R, 1992. Malarial placental infection and low birth weight babies. Mater Med Pol 24: 109–110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Testa J, Awodabon J, Lagarde N, Olivier T, Delmont J, 1990. Plasmodial indices and malaria placentopathy in 299 parturients in Central Africa. Med Trop (Mars) 50 :85–90.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Anagnos D, Lanoie LO, Palmieri JR, Ziefer A, Connor DH, 1986. Effects of placental malaria on mothers and neonates from Zaire. Z Parasitenkd 72 :57–64.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Watkinson M, Rushton DI, 1983. Plasmodial pigmentation of placenta and outcome of pregnancy in West African mothers. BMJ 287: 251–254.

  • 18

    Walter PR, Garin Y, Blot P, 1982. Placental pathologic changes in malaria. A histologic and ultrastructural study. Am J Pathol 109 :330–342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Garnham P, 1938. The placenta in malaria with special reference to the reticulo-endothelial immunity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 32 :13–48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Bruce-Chwatt LJ, 1952. Malaria in African infants and children in southern Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 46 :173–200.

  • 21

    Bachschmid I, Soro B, Coulibaly A, Philippe E, Kingston L, Kien T, Rey JL, 1991. Malaria infection during childbirth and in newborns in Becedi (Ivory Coast). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 84 :257–265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Jelliffe EF, 1968. Low birth-weight and malarial infection of the placenta. Bull World Health Organ 38 :69–78.

  • 23

    Luxemburger C, Thwai KL, White NJ, Webster HK, Kyle DE, Maelankirri L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nosten F, 1996. The epidemiology of malaria in a Karen population on the western border of Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 :105–111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Dubowitz MS, Dubowitz V, 1977. Gestational Age of the Newborn: A Clinical Manual. Boston: Addison Wesley.

  • 25

    Bulmer JN, Rasheed FN, Francis N, Morrison L, Greenwood BM, 1993. Placental malaria. I. Pathological classification. Histopathology 22 :211–218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Benirschke K, Kaufmann P, 1995. Pathology of the Human Placenta. New York: Springer-Verlag.

  • 27

    Nelson D, Swanson P, Davison B, Baskin G, Enders A, 1997. Ontogenic and pylogenetic evaluation of the presence of fibrin type fibrinoid in the villous hemochorial placenta. Placenta 18 :605–608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Davison BB, Cogswell FB, Baskin GB, Falkenstein KP, Henson EW, Tarantal AF, Krogstad DJ, 1998. Plasmodium coatneyi in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a model of malaria in pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :189–201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Davison BB, Cogswell FB, Baskin GB, Falkenstein KP, Henson EW, Krogstad DJ, 2000. Placental changes associated with fetal outcome in the Plasmodium coatneyi/rhesus monkey model of malaria in pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 :158–173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Ordi J, Ismail MR, Ventura PJ, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Cardesa A, Alonso PL, Menendez C, 1998. Massive chronic intervillositis of the placenta associated with malaria infection. Am J Surg Pathol 22 :1006–1011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Duffy PE, 2001. Immunity to malaria during pregnancy: different host, different parasite. Duffy PE, Fried M, eds. Malaria in Pregnancy: Deadly Parasite, Susceptible Host. London and New York: Taylor & Francis, 71–126.

  • 32

    Nebuloni M, Pallotti F, Polizzotti G, Pellegrinelli A, Tosi D, Giordano F, 2001. Malaria placental infection with massive chronic intervillositis in a gravida 4 woman. Hum Pathol 32 :1022–1023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Bray RS, Sinden RE, 1979. The sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73 :716–719.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Andrews KT, Lanzer M, 2002. Maternal malaria: Plasmodium falciparum sequestration in the placenta. Parasitol Res 88 :715–723.

  • 35

    McGready R, Brockman A, Cho T, Cho D, van Vugt M, Luxemburger C, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, White NJ, Nosten F, 2000. Randomized comparison of mefloquine-artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria in pregnancy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 :689–693.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Looareesuwan S, White NJ, Silamut K, Phillips RE, Warrell DA, 1987. Quinine and severe falciparum malaria in late pregnancy. Acta Leiden 55 :115–120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Nosten F, Karbwang J, White NJ, Honeymoon, Na Bangchang K, Bunnag D, Harinasuta T, 1990. Mefloquine antimalarial prophylaxis in pregnancy: dose finding and pharmacokinetic study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 30: 79–85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    McGready R, Stepniewska K, Edstein MD, Cho T, Gilveray G, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, Nosten F, 2003. The pharmacokinetics of atovaquone and proguanil in pregnant women with acute falciparum malaria. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59 :545–552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    McGready R, Stepniewska K, Seaton E, Cho T, Cho D, Ginsberg A, Edstein MD, Ashley E, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, Nosten F, 2003. Pregnancy and use of oral contraceptives reduces the biotransformation of proguanil to cycloguanil. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59 :553–557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Procop GW, Jessen R, Hyde SR, Scheck DN, 2001. Persistence of Plasmodium falciparum in the placenta after apparently effective quinidine/clindamycin therapy. J Perinatol 21 :128–130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Moormann AM, Sullivan AD, Rochford RA, Chensue SW, Bock PJ, Nyirenda T, Meshnick SR, 1999. Malaria and pregnancy: placental cytokine expression and its relationship to intrauterine growth retardation. J Infect Dis 180 :1987–1993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Fried M, Duffy PE, 1996. Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum to chondroitin sulfate A in the human placenta. Science 272 :1502–1504.

  • 43

    Fried M, Duffy PE, 1998. Maternal malaria and parasite adhesion. J Mol Med 76 :162–171.

  • 44

    Parise ME, Ayisi JG, Nahlen BL, Schultz LJ, Roberts JM, Misore A, Muga R, Oloo AJ, Steketee RW, 1998. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of placental malaria in an area of Kenya with a high prevalence of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :813–822.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Shulman CE, Dorman EK, Talisuna AO, Lowe BS, Nevill C, Snow RW, Jilo H, Peshu N, Bulmer JN, Graham S, Marsh K, 1998. A community randomized controlled trial of insecticide-treated bednets for the prevention of malaria and anaemia among primigravid women on the Kenyan coast. Trop Med Int Health 3 :197–204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Rogerson SJ, Chaluluka E, Kanjala M, Mkundika P, Mhango C, Molyneux ME, 2000. Intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnancy: effectiveness against malaria morbidity in Blantyre, Malawi, in 1997–99. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 :549–553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    Cot M, Brutus L, Pinell V, Ramaroson H, Raveloson A, Rabeson D, Rakotonjanabelo AL, 2002. Malaria prevention during pregnancy in unstable transmission areas: the highlands of Madagascar. Trop Med Int Health 7 :565–572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM AND P. VIVAX INFECTIONS ON PLACENTAL HISTOPATHOLOGY IN AN AREA OF LOW MALARIA TRANSMISSION

View More View Less
  • 1 Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Thailand; Faculty of Tropical Medicine, and Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom; Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana; Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Placental histopathology was studied in a cohort of 204 women living in an area of low Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria transmission. Detection of malaria antenatally was active, by weekly peripheral blood smears, and all infections were treated. Significant histopathologic placental malaria changes (increased malaria pigment, cytotrophoblastic prominence, and presence of parasites) were found only in a minority of women who had P. falciparum infections in pregnancy. These changes were significantly more frequent in women with evidence of peripheral blood infection close to delivery and only in these cases were placental inflammatory cells increased. Antenatal P. vivax infection was associated only with the presence of malaria pigment in the placenta. All placental infections diagnosed by blood smear and 32.4% (12 of 37) diagnosed by histopathology were associated with patent peripheral parasitemia. This study indicates that prompt treatment of peripheral parasitemias during pregnancy limits placental pathology. The effect on birth weight reduction may not result from irreversible placental changes but from the acute insult of infection. These findings emphasize the importance of treating malaria in pregnancy promptly with effective antimalarial drugs.

Save