• 1

    Lanzaro GC, Ostrovska K, Herrero MV, Lawyer PG, Warburg A, 1993. Lutzomyia longipalpis is a species complex: genetic divergence and interspecific hybrid sterility among three populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 :839–847.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Ward R, Phillips A, Burnet B, 1986. Genetic isolating mechanisms between different forms of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). Ann Ist Super Sanita 22 :69–72.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Ribeiro JM, 1987. Role of saliva in blood-feeding by arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol 32 :463–478.

  • 4

    Lerner EA, Shoemaker CB, 1992. Maxadilan. Cloning and functional expression of the gene encoding this potent vasodilator peptide. J Biol Chem 267 :1062–1066.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Lerner EA, Ribeiro JM, Nelson RJ, Lerner MR, 1991. Isolation of maxadilan, a potent vasodilatory peptide from the salivary glands of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.J Biol Chem 266 :11234–11236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Kamhawi S, 2000. The biological and immunomodulatory properties of sand fly saliva and its role in the establishment of Leishmania infections. Microbes Infect 2 :1765–1773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Titus RG, Ribeiro JM, 1988. Salivary gland lysates from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis enhance Leishmania infectivity. Science 239 :1306–1308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Theodos CM, Titus RG, 1993. Salivary gland material from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis has an inhibitory effect on macrophage function in vitro. Parasite Immunol 15 :481–487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Qureshi AA, Asahina A, Ohnuma M, Tajima M, Granstein RD, Lerner EA, 1996. Immunomodulatory properties of maxadilan, the vasodilator peptide from sand fly salivary gland extracts. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 :665–671.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Soares MB, Titus RG, Shoemaker CB, David JR, Bozza M, 1998. The vasoactive peptide maxadilan from sand fly saliva inhibits TNF- alpha and induces IL-6 by mouse macrophages through interaction with the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor. J Immunol 160 :1811–1816.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Bozza M, Soares MB, Bozza PT, Satoskar AR, Diacovo TG, Brombacher F, Titus RG, Shoemaker CB, David JR, 1998. The PACAP-type I receptor agonist maxadilan from sand fly saliva protects mice against lethal endotoxemia by a mechanism partially dependent on IL-10. Eur J Immunol 28 :3120–3127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Gillespie RD, Mbow ML, Titus RG, 2000. The immunomodulatory factors of bloodfeeding arthropod saliva. Parasite Immunol 22 :319–331.

  • 13

    Morris RV, Shoemaker CB, David JR, Lanzaro GC, Titus RG, 2001. Sandfly maxadilan exacerbates infection with Leishmania major and vaccinating against it protects against L. major infection. J Immunol 167 :5226–5230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Lanzaro GC, Lopes AH, Ribeiro JM, Shoemaker CB, Warburg A, Soares M, Titus RG, 1999. Variation in the salivary peptide, maxadilan, from species in the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. Insect Mol Biol 8 :267–275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Wikel S, 1982. Immune responses to arthropods and their products. Annu Rev Entomol 27 :21–48.

  • 16

    Wikel S, 1996. Host immunity to ticks. Annu Rev Entomol 41 :1–22.

  • 17

    Ghosh KN, Mukhopadhyay J, 1998. The effect of anti-sandfly saliva antibodies on Phlebotomus argentipes and Leishmania donovani.Int J Parasitol 28 :275–281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Sanders ML, Glass GE, Scott AL, Schwartz BS, 1998. Kinetics and cross-species comparisons of host antibody responses to lone star ticks and American dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 35 :849–856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Lane RS, Moss RB, Hsu YP, Wei T, Mesirow ML, Kuo MM, 1999. Anti-arthropod saliva antibodies among residents of a community at high risk for Lyme disease in California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :850–859.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Peng Z, Simons FE, 1997. Cross-reactivity of skin and serum specific IgE responses and allergen analysis for three mosquito species with worldwide distribution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100 :192–198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Barral A, Honda E, Caldas A, Costa J, Vinhas V, Rowton ED, Valenzuela JG, Charlab R, Barral-Netto M, Ribeiro JM, 2000. Human immune response to sand fly salivary gland antigens: a useful epidemiological marker? Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 :740–745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Young DG, Duncan MA, 1994. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Gainesville, FL: Associated Publishers.

  • 23

    Post RJ, Flook PK, Millest AL, 1993. Methods for the preservation of insects for DNA studies. Biochem Syst Ecol 21 :85–92.

  • 24

    Warburg A, Saraiva E, Lanzaro GC, Titus RG, Neva F, 1994. Saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis sibling species differs in its composition and capacity to enhance leishmaniasis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 345 :223–230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Jameson BA, Wolf H, 1988. The antigenic index: a novel algorithm for predicting antigenic determinants. Comput Appl Biosci 4 :181–186.

  • 26

    Soong L, Duboise SM, Kima P, McMahon-Pratt D, 1995. Leishmania pifanoi amastigote antigens protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infect Immun 63 :3559–3566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Mutebi JP, Alexander B, Sherlock I, Wellington J, Souza AA, Shaw J, Rangel EF, Lanzaro GC, 1999. Breeding structure of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :149–157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Nevo E, 1978. Genetic variation in natural population: patterns and theory. Theor Popul Biol 13 :121–177.

  • 29

    Endo T, Ikeo K, Gojobori T, 1996. Large-scale search for genes on which positive selection may operate. Mol Biol Evol 13 :685–690.

  • 30

    Zeledon R, Murillo J, Gutierrez H, 1984. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and possibilities of the existence of visceral leishmaniasis in Costa Rica. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 79 :455–459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Morrison AC, Ferro C, Tesh RB, 1993. Host preferences of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis at an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 :68–75.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Moro O, Wakita K, Ohnuma M, Denda S, Lerner EA, Tajima M, 1999. Functional characterization of structural alterations in the sequence of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan yields a pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide type 1 receptor-specific antagonist. J Biol Chem 274 :23103–23110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Tatsuno I, Uchida D, Tanaka T, Saeki N, Hirai A, Saito Y, Moro O, Tajima M, 2001. Maxadilan specifically interacts with PAC1 receptor, which is a dominant form of PACAP/VIP family receptors in cultured rat cortical neurons. Brain Res 889 :138–148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Nara PL, 1999. Deceptive imprinting: insights into mechanisms of immune evasion and vaccine development. Adv Vet Res 41 :115–134.

  • 35

    Nara PL, Garrity R, 1998. Deceptive imprinting: a cosmopolitan strategy for complicating vaccination. Vaccine 16 :1780–1787.

  • 36

    Kamhawi S, Belkaid Y, Modi G, Rowton E, Sacks D, 2000. Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis resulting from bites of uninfected sand flies. Science 290 :1351–1354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Valenzuela JG, Belkaid Y, Garfield MK, Mendez S, Kamhawi S, Rowton ED, Sacks DL, Ribeiro JM, 2001. Toward a defined anti-Leishmania vaccine targeting vector antigens: characterization of a protective salivary protein. J Exp Med 194 :331–342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY IN MAXADILAN, A SALIVARY PROTEIN FROM THE SAND FLY VECTOR OF AMERICAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Pathology and World Health Organization Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas; Departamentos de Entomologia y Parasitologia, Centro Nacional de Diagnostico y Referencia, Ministerio de Salud, Managua, Nicaragua

The salivary protein maxadilan (MAX) is a vasodilator and immunomodulator from the sand fly vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania chagasi. Vaccinating BALB/c mice with sand fly salivary gland extracts or with MAX protects the host against L. major infection. Because of the potential use of MAX in an anti-Leishmania vaccine, we characterized the vertebrate host IgG response to MAX in the present study. Our immunochemical analysis indicated that antibodies to MAX were detected in BALB/c mice, as well as in pigs and humans, from a area in Nicaragua endemic for Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous studies demonstrate that the MAX protein is polymorphic on the amino acid level. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring MAX variants were recognized specifically by the host immune system and antigenicity appeared to be associated with amino-acid sequence variability. Thus, antigenic diversity of MAX and possibly of other arthropod salivary proteins may dictate the development of vector-based vaccines(s).

Save