• 1

    Burt FJ, Swanepoel R, Shieh WJ, Smith JF, Leman PA, Greer PW, Coffield LM, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Zaki SR, 1997. Immunohistochemical and in situ localization of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in human tissues and implications for CCHF pathogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1219 :839–846.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Leshchinskaya EV, 1965. Crimean hemorrhagic fever (in Russian). Trudy Inst Polio Virus Entsef Akad Med Nauk SSSR 7 :226–236.

  • 3

    Burney MI, Ghafoor A, Saleen M, Webb PA, Casals J, 1980. Nosocomial outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean Hemorrhagic fever-Congo virus in Pakistan, January 1976. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29 :941–947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Bosan AH, Kakar F, Dil AS, Asghar H, Zaidi S, 2000. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Pakistan. Dis Surveillance 2 :4–5.

  • 5

    Scrimgeour EM, 1995. Communicable diseases in Saudia Arabia; an epidemiological review. Trop Dis Bull 92 :R79–R95.

  • 6

    Suleiman MN, Muscat-Baron JM, Harries JR, Satti AG, Platt GS, Bowen ET, Simpson DI, 1980. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Dubai. An outbreak at the Rashid Hospital. Lancet 2 :939–941.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Al-Nakib W, Lloyd G, El-Mekki A, Platt G, Beeson A, Southee T, 1984. Preliminary report on arbovirus-antibody prevalence among patients in Kuwait: evidence of Congo/Crimean virus infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 78 :474–476.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Al-Tikriti SK, Al-Ani F, Jurji FJ, Tantawi H, Al-Moslih M, Al-Janabi N, Mahmud MI, Al-Bana A, Habib H, Al-Munthri H, Al-Janabi S, AL-Jawahry K, Yonan M, Hassan F, Simpson DI, 1981. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Iraq. Bull World Health Organ 59 :85–90.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Fisher-Hoch SP, Khan JA, Rehman S, Mirza S, Khurshid M, McCormick JB, 1995. Crimean Congo-haemorrhagic fever treated with oral ribavirin. Lancet 346 :472–475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    el-Azazy OM, Scrimgeour EM, 1997. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 :275–278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Khan AS, Maupin GO, Rollin PE, Noor AM, Shurie HH, Shalabi AG, Wasef S, Haddad YM, Sadek R, Ijaz K, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG, 1997. An outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates, 1994–1995. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 :519–525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    van de Wal BW, Joubert JR, van Eeden PJ, King JB, 1985. A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever at Tygerberg Hospital. Part IV. Preventive and prophylactic measures. S Afr Med J 68 :729–732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    van Eeden PJ, Joubert JR, van de Wal BW, King JB, de Kock A, Groenewald JH, 1985. A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever at Tygerberg Hospital. Part I. Clinical features. S Afr Med J 68 :711–717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Watts DM, Ussery MA, Nash D, Peters CJ, 1989. Inhibition of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viral infectivity yields in vitro by ribavirin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41 :591–595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Tignor GH, Hanham CA, 1993. Ribavirin efficacy in an in vivo model of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF) infection. Antiviral Res 22 :309–325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Huggins JW, 1989. Prospects for treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers with ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Rev Infect Dis 11 (Suppl 4): S750– S761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    McCormick JB, King IJ, Webb PA, Scribner CL, Craven RB, Johnson KM, Elliott LH, Belmont-Williams R, 1986. Lassa fever. Effective therapy with ribavirin. N Engl J Med 314 :20–26.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Huggins JW, Hsiang CM, Cosgriff TM, Guang MY, Smith JI, Wu ZO, LeDuc JW, Zheng ZM, Meegan JM, Wang QN, 1991. Prospective, double-blind, concurrent, placebo-controlled clinical trial of intravenous ribavirin therapy of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. J Infect Dis 164 :1119–1127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Swanepoel R, Leham P, Abbott JC, Burt FJ, Grobbelaar AA, 1990. Epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical pathology and treatment of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in South Africa. Proceedings and Abstracts of the VIIth International Congress of Virology. Berlin, West Germany.

  • 20

    CDC, 1988. Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 37 :1–16.

  • 21

    Fisher-Hoch SP, Price ME, Craven RB, Price FM, Forthall DN, Sasso DR, Scott SM, McCormick JB, 1985. Safe intensive-care management of a severe case of Lassa fever with simple barrier nursing techniques. Lancet 2 :1227–1229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Chapman LE, Wilson ML, Hall DB, LeGuenno B, Dykstra EA, Ba K, Fisher-Hoch SP, 1991. Risk factors for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in rural northern Senegal. J Infect Dis 164 :686–692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Altaf A, Luby S, Ahmed AJ, Zaidi N, Khan AJ, Mirza S, McCormick J, Fisher-Hoch S, 1998. Outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Quetta, Pakistan: contact tracing and risk assessment. Trop Med Int Health 3 :878–882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Gonzalez JP, LeGuenno B, Guillaud M, Wilson ML, 1990. A fatal case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Mauritania: virological and serological evidence suggesting epidemic transmission. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 :573–576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Morrill JC, Soliman AK, Imam IZ, Botros BA, Moussa MI, Watts DM, 1990. Serological evidence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viral infection among camels imported into Egypt. J Trop Med Hyg 93 :201–204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Hoogstraal H, 1979. The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol 15 :307–417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB, Swanepoel R, Van Middlekoop A, Harvey S, Kustner HG, 1992. Risk of human infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a South African rural community. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47 :337–345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Shepherd AJ, Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Shepherd SP, 1986. Comparison of methods for isolation and titration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Clin Microbiol 24 :654–656.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Shepherd AJ, Swanepoel R, Gill DE, 1988. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reversed passive hemagglutination for detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antigen. J Clin Microbiol 26 :347–353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Swanepoel R, Gill DE, Shepherd AJ, Leman PA, Mynhardt JH, Harvey S, 1989. The clinical pathology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Rev Infec Dis 11 (Suppl 4): S794– S800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Fischer-Hoch SP, 1983. The haemostatic defect in viral haemorrhagic fevers. Br J Haematol 55 :565–571.

  • 32

    Galen RS, Gambino SR, 1975. Beyond Normality: The Predictive Value and Efficiency of Medical Diagnosis. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

  • 33

    Shepherd AJ, Swanepoel R, Leman PA, 1989. Antibody response in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Rev Infect Dis 11 (Suppl 4): S801– S806.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 297 136 30
PDF Downloads 81 34 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

SHORT REPORT: CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER OUTBREAK IN RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN, FEBRUARY 2002

MUHAMMAD NAUMAN ATHARDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by MUHAMMAD NAUMAN ATHAR in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
HAIDER ZAIGHAM BAQAIDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by HAIDER ZAIGHAM BAQAI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
MASOOD AHMADDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by MASOOD AHMAD in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
MOHAMMAD ALI KHALIDDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by MOHAMMAD ALI KHALID in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
NAGHMAN BASHIRDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by NAGHMAN BASHIR in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
AHSAN MAQBOOL AHMADDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by AHSAN MAQBOOL AHMAD in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
ABBAS HAYAT BALOUCHDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by ABBAS HAYAT BALOUCH in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
KAUKAB BASHIRDepartment of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Search for other papers by KAUKAB BASHIR in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever occurred in Rawalpindi, Pakistan in February 2002. The identified index case died shortly after admission to a hospital. Two of the health care workers became secondary cases; one of them died on day 13 after coming in contact with the index case. The other secondary case was successfully treated with oral ribavirin.

Save