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    Mackinnon MJ, Hastings IM, 1998. The evolution of multiple drug resistance in malaria parasites. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 :188– 195.

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    White NJ, Nosten F, Looareesuwan S, Watkins WM, Marsh K, Snow RW, Kokwaro G, Ouma J, Hien TT, Molyneux ME, Taylor TE, Newbold CI, Ruebush TK II, Danis M, Greenwood BM, Anderson RM, Olliaro P, 1999. Averting a malaria disaster. Lancet 353 :1965– 1967.

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    Winstanley PA, 2000. Chemotherapy for falciparum malaria: the armoury, the problems and the prospects. Parasitol Today 16 :146– 153.

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    Sibley CH, Hyde JE, Sims PF, Plowe CV, Kublin JG, Mberu EK, Cowman AF, Winstanley PA, Watkins WM, Nzila AM, 2001. Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: what next? Trends Parasitol 17 :582– 588.

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    Wongsrichanalai C, Pickard AL, Wernsdorfer WH, Meshnick SR, 2002. Epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria. Lancet Infect Dis 2 :209– 218.

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    Wichmann O, Jelinek T, Peyerl-Hoffmann G, Muhlberger N, Grobusch MP, Gascon J, Matteelli A, Hatz C, Laferl H, Schulze M, Burchard G, Cunha SdS, Beran J, McWhinney P, Kollaritsch H, Kern P, Cuadros J, Alifrangis M, Gjorup I, 2003. Molecular surveillance of the antifolate-resistant mutation I164L in imported african isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in Europe: sentinel data from TropNetEurop. Malar J 2 :17 .

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    Winstanley P, 2001. Chlorproguanil-dapsone (LAPDAP) for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Trop Med Int Health 6 :952– 954.

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    Winstanley P, Watkins W, Muhia D, Szwandt S, Amukoye E, Marsh K, 1997. Chlorproguanil/dapsone for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children: pharmaco-kinetics and therapeutic range. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 :322– 327.

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    Mutabingwa T, Nzila A, Mberu E, Nduati E, Winstanley P, Hills E, Watkins W, 2001. Chlorproguanil-dapsone for treatment of drug-resistant falciparum malaria in Tanzania. Lancet 358 :1218– 1223.

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    Nzila AM, Nduati E, Mberu EK, Hopkins Sibley C, Monks SA, Winstanley PA, Watkins WM, 2000. Molecular evidence of greater selective pressure for drug resistance exerted by the long-acting antifolate pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine compared with the shorter-acting chlorproguanil/dapsone on Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum. J Infect Dis 181 :2023– 2028.

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    Wilairatana P, Kyle DE, Looareesuwan S, Chinwongprom K, Amradee S, White NJ, Watkins WM, 1997. Poor efficacy of antimalarial biguanide-dapsone combinations in the treatment of acute, uncomplicated, falciparum malaria in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91 :125– 132.

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    Nzila-Mounda A, Mberu EK, Sibley CH, Plowe CV, Winstanley PA, Watkins WM, 1998. Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum field isolates: correlation between pyrimethamine and chlorcycloguanil activity in vitro and point mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase domain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42 :164– 169.

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    Petersen E, 1987. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, singly and in combination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81 :238– 241.

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    Anglaret X, Chene G, Attia A, Toure S, Lafont S, Combe P, Manlan K, N’Dri-Yoman T, Salamon R, 1999. Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole for HIV-1-infected adults in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire: a randomised trial. Cotrimo-CI Study Group. Lancet 353 :1463– 1468.

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    Iyer JK, Milhous WK, Cortese JF, Kublin JG, Plowe CV, 2001. Plasmodium falciparum cross-resistance between trimethoprim and pyrimethamine. Lancet 358 :1066– 1067.

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    Snow RW, Eckert E, Teklehaimanot A, 2003. Estimating the needs for artesunate-based combination therapy for malaria case-management in Africa. Trends Parasitol 19 :363– 369.

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    Mita T, Kaneko A, Lum JK, Bwijo B, Takechi M, Zungu IL, Tsukahara T, Tanabe K, Kobayakama T, Björkman A, 2003. Recovery of chloroquine sensitivity and low prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene mutation K76T following the discontinuance of chloroquine use in Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :413– 415.

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    Kublin JG, Cortese JF, Njunju EM, Mukadam RA, Wirima JJ, Kazembe PN, Djimde AA, Kouriba B, Taylor TE, Plowe CV, 2003. Reemergence of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum malaria after cessation of chloroquine use in Malawi. J Infect Dis 187 :1870– 1875.

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    Zindrou S, Nguyen PD, Nguyen DS, Skold O, Swedberg G, 1996. Plasmodium falciparum: mutation pattern in the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase genes of Vietnamese isolates, a novel mutation, and coexistence of two clones in a Thai patient. Exp Parasitol 84 :56– 64.

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    Wang P, Lee CS, Bayoumi R, Djimde A, Doumbo O, Swedberg G, Dao LD, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Watkins WM, Sims PF, Hyde JE, 1997. Resistance to antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum monitored by sequence analysis of dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase alleles in a large number of field samples of diverse origins. Mol Biochem Parasitol 89 :161– 177.

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    Masimirembwa CM, Phuong-dung N, Phuc BQ, Duc-Dao L, Sy ND, Skold O, Swedberg G, 1999. Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum antifolate resistance in Vietnam: genotyping for resistance variants of dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase. Int J Antimicrob Agents 12 :203– 211.

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    Ngo T, Duraisingh M, Reed M, Hipgrave D, Biggs B, Cowman AF, 2003. Analysis of pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps mutations and drug sensitivities in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients in Vietnam before and after treatment with artemisinin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :350– 356.

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ROLL BACK OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ANTIFOLATE RESISTANCE BY INSECTICIDE-TREATED NETS

PETER A. ZIMMERMANThe Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, W147D, 2109 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, Ohio

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