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Vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea in 1993. Most of the cases occurred among soldiers in the region adjacent to the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) until 1995. To determine the rate of dispersion of vivax malaria, we evaluated its epidemiologic characteristics. Of 13,903 cases of vivax malaria reported in 2000, 40.1% (5,577) were reported among Republic of Korea military personnel, 26.2% (3,641) among veterans discharged less than two years from the military, and 33.7% (4,685) among civilians. Cases of vivax malaria have rapidly increased annually among counties bordering the DMZ, and have spread to approximately 40 km south of the DMZ. Chemoprophylaxis administered to military personnel may have been responsible for the decreasing number of cases among the Republic of Korea military population. The first mosquito-transmitted cases appeared in early June. Therefore, chemoprophylaxis should be instituted in early April to reduce the number of infected mosquitoes. Extensive intervention is warranted to reduce the spread of vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.