ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH DIARRHEAL PATIENTS IN INDONESIA

PERISKA TJANIADI United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by PERISKA TJANIADI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
MURAD LESMANA United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by MURAD LESMANA in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
DECY SUBEKTI United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by DECY SUBEKTI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
NUNUNG MACHPUD United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by NUNUNG MACHPUD in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
SHINTA KOMALARINI United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by SHINTA KOMALARINI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
WASIS SANTOSO United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by WASIS SANTOSO in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
CYRUS H. SIMANJUNTAK United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by CYRUS H. SIMANJUNTAK in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
NARAIN PUNJABI United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by NARAIN PUNJABI in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
JAMES R. CAMPBELL United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by JAMES R. CAMPBELL in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
WILLIAM K. ALEXANDER United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by WILLIAM K. ALEXANDER in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
H. JAMES BEECHAM III United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by H. JAMES BEECHAM III in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
ANDREW L. CORWIN United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by ANDREW L. CORWIN in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
BUHARI A. OYOFO United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; Sumber Waras Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Friendship Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Faculty, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Search for other papers by BUHARI A. OYOFO in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for 2,812 bacterial pathogens isolated from diarrheal patients admitted to hospitals in several provinces in the cities of Jakarta, Padang, Medan, Denpasar, Pontianak, Makassar, and Batam, Indonesia were analyzed from 1995 to 2001 to determine their changing trends in response to eight antibiotics: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Vibrio cholerae O1 (37.1%) was the pathogen most frequently detected, followed by Shigella spp. (27.3%), Salmonella spp. (17.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (7.3%), Salmonella typhi (3.9%), Campylobacter jejuni (3.6%), V. cholerae non-O1 (2.4%), and Salmonella paratyphi A (0.7%). Of the 767 Shigella spp. isolated, 82.8% were S. flexneri, 15.0% were S. sonnei, and 2.2% were S. dysenteriae (2.2%). The re-emergence of Shigella dysenteriae was noted in 1998, after an absence of 15 years. Shigella spp. were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A were susceptible to all antibiotics tested, while Salmonella spp. showed various resistance patterns according to species grouping. A small number of V. cholerae O1 were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline; however, they were still sensitive to ceftriaxon, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Similar results were shown for V. cholerae non-O1. Campylobacter jejuni showed an increased frequency of resistance to ceftriaxone, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, but was susceptible to erythromycin. This study shows that except for C. jejuni and V. parahaemolyticus, which appeared to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, the majority of the enteric pathogens tested were still susceptible to fluoroquinolones.

Author Notes

  • 1

    Sack RB, Rahman M, Yunus M, Khan EH, 1997. Antimicrobial resistance in organisms causing diarrheal disease. Clin Infect Dis 24 :S102–S105.

  • 2

    Du Pont HL, 1993. Diarrheal disease: current concepts and future challenges antimicrobials therapy and prophylaxis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 (Suppl 3):31–34.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Tauxe RV, 1997. Emerging foodborne disease: an evolving public health challenge. Emerg Infect Dis 3 :425–434.

  • 4

    Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV, 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5 :607–625.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Smith SM, Palumbo PE, Edelson PD, 1984. Salmonella strain resistant to multiple antibiotics: Therapeutic implications. Pediatr Infect Dis 3 :455–460.

  • 6

    Bopp CA, Birkness KA, Wachsmuth IK, Barrett T J, 1985. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid analysis, and sero-typing of epidemic-associated Campylobacter jejuni.J Clin Microbiol 21 :4–7.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Hoge CW, Gambel JM, Srijan A, Pitarangsi C, Echeverria P, 1998. Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 Years. Clin Infect Dis 26 :341–345.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Murphy GS Jr, Echeverria P, Jackson LR, Arness MK, Lebron C, Pitarangsi C, 1995. Ciprofloxacin- and azithromycin-resistant causing Traveler’s diarrhea in U. S. troops deployed to Thailand in 1994. Clin Infect Dis 22 :868–869.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Endtz HP, Ruijs GJ, van Klingeren B, Jansen WH, van der Reyden T, Mouton RP, 1991. Quinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from man and poultry following the introduction of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine. J Antmicrobiol Chemother 27 :199–208.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Bennish ML, Salam MA, Hossain MA, Myaux J, Khan EH, Chakraborty J, Henry F, Ronsmans C, 1992. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh, 1983–1990: increasing frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole and nalidixic acid. J Infect Dis 14 :1055–1060.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Subekti D, Oyofo BA, Tjaniadi P, Corwin A L, Larasati W, Putri M, Simanjuntak CH, Punjabi NH, Taslim J, Setiawan B, Djelantik AAG, Sriwati L, Sumardiati A, Putra E, Campbell J R, Lesmana M, 2001. Surveillance of Shigella spp. in Indonesia: the emergence or re-emergence of S. dysenteriae.Emerg Infect Dis 7 :137–140.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Watanabe T, 1972. Further outlooks of antibiotics in the shadow of resistance factors. Kremery V, Rosival L, Watanabe T, eds. Bacterial Plasmids and Antibiotic Resistance. Prague: Avicenum, Czechoslovak Medical Press, 9–10.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Farmer JJ III, Kelly MT, 1991. Enterobacteriaceae. Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Herman KL, Isenberg HD, Shadomy HJ, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Fifth edition. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 370–373.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Lesmana M, Albert MJ, Subekti D, Richie E, Tjaniadi P, Walz SE, Lebron CI, 1996. Simple differentiation of Vibrio cholerae O 139 from V. cholerae O1 and non-O1, non O139 by modified CAMP test. J Clin Microbiol 34 :1038–1040.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 1997. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests. Sixth edition. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Approved Standard M2-A6.17: 1.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Woods GL, Washington JA, 1995. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: dilution and disk diffusion methods. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Sixth edition. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1327–1355.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Lesmana M, Subekti D, Simanjuntak CH, Tjaniadi P, Campbell JR, Oyofo BA, 2001. Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with cholera-like diarrhea among patients in north Jakarta, Indonesia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 39 :71–75.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Vanhoof R, Vanderlinden MP, Dierickx R, Lauwers S, Yourassowsky E, Butzler JP, 1978. Susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni to twenty-nine antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14 :553–556.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Bhattacharya MK, Bhattacharya SK, Paul M, Dutta D, Dutta P, Kole H, De D, Ghosh AR, Das P, Nair GB, 1994. Shigellosis in Calcutta during 1990–1992: antibiotic susceptibility pattern and clinical features. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 12 :121–124.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Lima AAM, Lima NL, Pinho MCN, Barros EA Jr, Teixeira M.J, Martins MCV, Guerrant RL, 1995. High frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline isolated from patients with shigellosis in northeastern Brazil during the period 1988 to 1993. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39 :256–259.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Navia MM, Capitano L, Ruiz J, Vargas M, Urassa H, Schellemberg D, Gascon J, Vila J, 1999. Typing and characterization of mechanisms of resistance of Shigella spp. from feces of children under 5 years of age from Ifakara, Tanzania. J Clin Microbiol 37 :3113–3117.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Wasfy MO, Oyofo BA, David JC, Ismail TF, El-Gendy AM, Mohran ZS, Sultan Y, Peruski LF Jr, 2000. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter from acute enteric infections in Egypt. J Health Popul Nutr 18 :33–38.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Gaudreau C, Gilbert H, 1998. Antimicrobial resistance of clinical strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated from 1985 to 1997 in Quebec, Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42 :2106–2108.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Taylor DN, Blaser MJ, Echeverria P, Pitarangsi C, Bodhidatta L, Wang W L, 1997. Erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter infections in Thailand. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31 :438–442.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Sanborn WR, Lesmana M, Dennis DT, Trenggonowati R, Kairman Lita I, Suryani, 1975. Antibiotic-resistant typhoid in Indonesia (letter). Lancet ii :408–409.

  • 26

    Rowe B, Ward LR, Threlfall EJ, 1997. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi: a worldwide epidemic. Clin Infect Dis 24 (Suppl 1):S106–S109.

Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 36 36 16
Full Text Views 442 59 0
PDF Downloads 114 18 0
 
Membership Banner
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save