• 1

    WHO, 1994. The control of schistosomiasis. Report of a WHO Expert Communitee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser: 830.

  • 2

    Chitsulo L, Engels D, Montresor A, Savioli L, 2000. The global status of schistosomiasis and its control. Acta Trop 77 :41–51.

  • 3

    Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14 :397–400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Doenhoff MJ, 1998. Is schistosomicidal chemotherapy subcurative? Implications for drug resistance. Parasitol Today 14 :434–435.

  • 5

    Gryseels B, de Vlas SJ, 1996. Worm burden in schistosome infections. Parasitol Today 12 :115–119.

  • 6

    Ebrahim A, El-Morshedy H, Omer E, El-Daly S, Barakat R, 1997. Evaluation of the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol ether sedimentation techniques for quantitative diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 :706–708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Hamilton JV, Klinkert M, Doenhoff MJ, 1998. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis: antibody detection, with notes on parasitological and antigen detection methods. Parasitology 117 :41–57.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Doenhoff MJ, Butterworth AE, Hayes RJ, Sturrock RF, Ouma JH, Koech D, Prentice M, Bain J, 1993. Seroepidemiology and serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis in Kenya using crude and purified egg antigens of Schistosoma mansoni in ELISA. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 :42–48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Attallah AM, Ismail H, El Masry SA, Rizk H, Handousa A, El Bendary M, Tabll A, Ezzat F, 1999. Rapid detection of a Schistosoma mansoni circulating antigen excreted in urine of infected individuals by using a monoclonal antibody. J Clin Microbiol 37 :354–357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    de Jonge N, Gryseels B, Hilberath GW, Polderman AM, Deelder AM, 1988. Detection of circulating anodic antigen by ELISA for seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82 :591–594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    van Lieshout L, Panday UG, de Jonge N, Krijger FW, Oostburg BF, Polderman AM, Deelder AM, 1995. Immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low endemic area in Surinam by determination of the circulating antigens CAA and CCA. Acta Trop 59 :19–29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, Mullis KB, Horn GT, Erlich HA, Arnheim N, 1985. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 230 :1350–1354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Pontes LA, Dias-Neto E, Rabello A, 2002. PCR detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human fecal and serum samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 :157–162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Samuelson JC, Quinn JJ, Caulfield JP, 1984. Hatching, chemokinesis, and transformation of miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. J Parasitol 70 :321–331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Kassim O, Gibertson DE, 1976. Hatching of Schistosoma mansoni eggs and observations on motility of miracidia. J Parasitol 62 :715–720.

  • 16

    Steiner JJ, Poklemba CJ, Fjellstrom RG, Elliott LF, 1995. A rapid one-tube genomic DNA extraction process for PCR and RAPD analyses. Nucleic Acids Res 23 :2569–2570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Hamburger J, Turetski T, Kapeller I, Deresiewicz R, 1991. Highly repeated short DNA sequences in the genome of Schistosoma mansoni recognized by a species-specific probe. Mol Biochem Parasitol 44 :73–80.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Sanguinetti CJ, Dias-Neto E, Simpson AJ, 1994. Rapid silver staining and recovery of PCR products separated on polyacrylamide gels. Biotechniques 17 :914–921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    de Vlas SJ, Gryssels B, 1992. Underestimation of Schistosoma mansoni prevalences. Parasitol Today 8 :274–277.

  • 20

    Engels D, Sinzinkayo E, Gryseels B, 1996. Day-to-day egg count fluctuation in Schistosoma mansoni infection and its operational implications. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 :319–324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Ye XP, Donnelly CA, Anderson RM, Fu YL, Agnew A, 1998. The distribution of Schistosoma japonicum eggs in faeces and the effect of stirring faecal specimens. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 :181–185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Rabello AL, Rocha RS, Oliveira JP, Katz N, Lambertucci JR, 1992. Stool examination and rectal biopsy in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy of schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 34 :601–608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Domingues AL, Coutinho AD, 1990. Reduction of morbidity in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni after treatment with praziquantel: a long term study. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 23 :101–107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMPARISON OF A POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND THE KATO-KATZ TECHNIQUE FOR DIAGNOSING INFECTION WITH SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI

View More View Less
  • 1 Laboratory of Clinical Research, and Laboratory of Schistosomiasis, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Laboratory of Neurosciences, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Fecal samples from 194 individuals living in an area of Brazil endemic for Schistosoma mansoni were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Kato-Katz parasitologic examination. Statistical analysis of the results showed a kappa index of 0.8 between the two methods. The prevalence of infection was 30.9% in three fecal samples examined by the Kato-Katz method, but 38.1% in one fecal sample examined by the PCR technique. Repeated survey of discordant results showed that five (41.6%) of 12 parasitologically negative cases for which PCR gave positive results were misdiagnosed by Kato-Katz examinations. The PCR technique showed a sensitivity of 96.7% and a specificity of 88% when the parasitologic examination was used as the reference test. The efficacy of cure with praziquantel was 87.8% in three parasitologic stool examinations and 75.6% in one PCR survey. These results demonstrate that the PCR assay might be a valuable alternative for diagnosing Schistosoma infections.

Author Notes

Reprints requests: Luís A. Pontes, Laboratory of Clinical Research, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Av. Augusto de Lima, 1715, 30190-002, Barro Preto, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Save