• 1

    Medecins Sans Frontieres, 1997. Measles Immunization. Hanquest G, ed. Refugee Health. An Approach to Emergency Situations. London: MacMillan Education, Ltd., 55–65.

  • 2

    Cutts TF, Henderson RH, Clements CJ, Chen RT, Patriarca PA, 1991. Principles of measles control. Bull World Health Organ 69 :1–7.

  • 3

    Toole MJ, Steketee R, Waldman RJ, Nieburg P, 1989. Measles prevention and control in emergency settings. Bull World Health Organ 67 :381–388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Orenstein WA, Bernier RH, Dondero TJ, Hinman AR, Marks JS, Bart KJ, Sirotkin B, 1985. Field evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Bull World Health Organ 63 :1055–1068.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Salama P, Assefa F, Talley L, Spiegel P, van der Veen A, Gotway C, 2001. Malnutrition, measles, mortality, and the humanitarian response during a famine in Ethiopia. JAMA 286 :563–571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    World Health Organization, 2001. Vaccine, Immunization and Biologicals: Measles.http://www.who.int/vaccines-surveillance/deseasedesc/RSS_measles.htm#RecCaseDef .

  • 7

    Moss W, Cutts F, Griffin D, 1999. Implications of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic for control and eradication of measles. Clin Infect Dis 29 :106–112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Aaby P, Martins C, Carlitos B, Lisse I, 1998. Assessing measles coverage by maternal recall in Guinea-Bissau. Lancet 352 :1229.

  • 9

    The Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response, 1998.The SPHERE Project: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Geneva: Oxfam Publishing.

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SHORT REPORT: ASSESSING FIELD VACCINE EFFICACY FOR MEASLES IN FAMINE-AFFECTED RURAL ETHIOPIA

View More View Less
  • 1 International Emergency and Refugee Health Branch, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

Measles is a major cause of mortality in complex emergencies. Both high vaccination coverage and vaccine efficacy are required to prevent major epidemics of measles in such situations. Evaluation of field vaccine efficacy is a critical but underutilized component of program monitoring in emergencies, and is particularly important in rural areas where the integrity of the cold chain is difficult to guarantee. In July 2000, we evaluated the field vaccine efficacy for measles vaccination by comparing the incidence of cases in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups during a two-stage cluster survey of 563 children in Ethiopia. Approximately 30% of the measles cases occurred in vaccinated children. Estimated field vaccine efficacy for measles was 66.9% in children 9–36 months old. The finding of a field vaccine efficacy for measles less than 80% warrants formal assessment of measles vaccine efficacy, particularly in famine emergencies where measles is associated with a high case fatality rate.

Save