• 1

    Snow RW, Lindsay SW, Hayes RJ, Greenwood BM, 1988. Permethrin-treated bednets (mosquito nets) prevent malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82 :838–842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JRM, Conteh M, Hill AG, David PH, Fegan G, Francisco D, Hall AJ, Shenton FC, Cham K, Greenwood BM, 1991. The effect of insecticide-treated bed-nets on mortality of Gambian children. Lancet 337 :1449–1502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    D’Alessandro U, Olaleye BO, McGuire W, Langerock P, Bennett S, Aikins MK, Thomson MC, Cham MK, Cham BA, Greenwood BM, 1995. Mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children after introduction of an impregnated bed-net programme. Lancet 345 :479–483.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Binka FN, Kubaje A, Adjuik M, Williams LA, Lengeler C, Maude GH, Armah GE, Kajihara B, Adiamah JH, Smith PG, 1996. Impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Trop Med Int Health 1 :147–154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Nevill CG, Some ES, Mung’ala VO, Mutemi W, New L, Marsh K, Lengeler C, Snow RW, 1996. Insecticide-treated bednets reduce mortality and severe morbidity from malaria among children on the Kenyan coast. Trop Med Int Health 1 :139–146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Magesa SM, Wilkes TJ, Mnzava AEP, Njunwa KJ, Myamba J, Kivuyo MDP, Hill N, Lines JD, Curtis CF, 1991. Trial of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. 2. Effects on the malaria vector population. Acta Trop 49 :97–108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Jaenson TGT, Gomes MJ, Barreto dos Santos RC, Petrarca V, Fortini D, Evora J, Crato J, 1994. Control of endophagic Anopheles mosquitoes and human malaria in Guinea Bissau, West Africa by permethrin-treated bed nets. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 :620–624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Cuzin-Ouattara N, van den Broek AHA, Habluetzel A, Diabate A, Sanogo-Ilboudo E, Diallo DA, Cousens SN, Esposito F, 1999. Wide-scale installation of insecticide-treated curtains confers high levels of protection against malaria transmission in a hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 :473–479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Lo TQ, Kamau L, Kolczak MS, Phillips-Howard PA, Mathenge EM, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, High-tower AW, Hawley WA, 2003. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl 4):16–22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Rozendaal JA, 1989. Impregnated mosquito nets and curtains for self-protection and vector control. Trop Dis Bull 86 :R1–R41.

  • 11

    Miller JE, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JRM, 1991. Experimental hut trials of bednets impregnated with synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides for mosquito control in The Gambia. Med Vet Entomol 5 :465–476.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Lindsay SW, Adiamah JH, Miller JE, Armstrong JRM, 1991. Pyrethroid-treated bednet effects on mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia. Med Vet Entomol 5 :477–483.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Winch PJ, Makemba AM, Makemba VR, Mfaume MS, Lynch MC, Premji Z, Minjas JN, Shiff CJ, 1997. Social and cultural factors affecting rates of regular retreatment of mosquito nets with insecticide in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 2 :760–770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Holtz TH, Marum LH, Mkandala C, Chizani N, Roberts JM, Macheso A, Parise ME, Kachur SP, 2002. Insecticide-treated bednet use, anaemia, and malaria parasitaemia in Blantyre District, Malawi. Trop Med Int Health 7 :220–230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Okrah J, Traore C, Pale A, Sommerfeld J, Muller O, 2002. Community factors associated with malaria prevention by mosquito nets: an exploratory study in rural Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health 7 :240–248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Cham MK, Olaleye B, d’Alessandro U, Aikins M, Cham B, Maine N, Willams LA, Mills A, Greenwood BM, 1997. The impact of charging for insecticide on the Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme. Health Policy Plan 12 :240–247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Snow RW, McCabe E, Mbogo CNM, Molyneux CS, Some ES, Mung’ala VO, Nevill CG, 1999. The effect of delivery mechanisms on the uptake of bed net re-impregnation in Kilifi District, Kenya. Health Policy Plan 14 :18–25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Lines JD, Myamba J, Curtis CF, 1987. Experimental hut trials of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets and curtains against malaria vectors in Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 1 :37–51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Snow RW, Rowan K, Greenwood BM, 1987. A trial of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81 :563–567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Mbogo CNM, Baya NM, Ofulla AVO, Githure JI, Snow RW, 1996. The impact of permethrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors of the Kenyan coast. Med Vet Entomol 10 :251–259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Howard SC, Omumbo J, Nevill C, Some ES, Donnelly CA, Snow RW, 2000. Evidence for a mass community effect of insecticide-treated bednets on the incidence of malaria on the Kenyan coast. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 :357–360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Binka FN, Indome F, Smith T, 1998. Impact of spatial distribution of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on child mortality in rural northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :80–85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Lindsay SW, Alonso PL, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM, Heminway J, Adiamah J, Shenton FC, Jawara M, Greenwood BM, 1993. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bednets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. 7. Impact of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on malaria vectors. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 (Suppl 2):45–51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Thomson MC, Adiamah JH, Conner SJ, Jawara M, Bennett S, d’Alessandro U, Quinones M, Langerock P, Greenwood BM, 1995. Entomological evaluation of the Gambia National Impregnated bednet Programme. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 89 :229–241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Quinones ML, Lines J, Thomson MC, Jawara M, Greenwood BM, 1998. Permethrin-treated bed nets do not have a ‘mass-killing effect’ on village populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in The Gambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 :373–378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Beier JC, Perkins PV, Onyango FK, Gargan TP, Oster CN, Whitmore RE, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1990. Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in preparation for malaria vaccine trials. J Med Entomol 27 :570–577.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Beier JC, Oster CN, Onyango FK, Bales JD, Sherwood JA, Perkins PV, Chumo DK, Koech DV, Whitmire RE, Roberts CR, Diggs CL, Hoffman SL, 1994. Plasmodium falciparum incidence relative to entomologic inoculation rates at a site proposed for testing malaria vaccines in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :529–536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    McElroy PD, Beier JC, Oster CN, Beadle C, Sherwood JA, Oloo AJ, Hoffman SL, 1994. Predicting outcome in malaria: correlation between rate of exposure to infected mosquitoes and level of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 :523–532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Bloland PB, Boriga DA, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Roberts JM, Oloo AG, Hawley WA, Lal A, Nahlen B, Campbell CC, 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission II. Descriptive epidemiology of malaria infection and disease among children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 :641–648.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Hightower AW, Ombok M, Otieno R, Odhiambo R, Oloo AJ, Lal AA, Nahlen BL, Hawley WA, 1998. A geographic information system applied to a malaria field study in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 :266–272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Bloland PB, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Ayisi J, Boriga DA, Oloo AJ, Beach R, Hawley WA, Lal A, Nahlen B, Udhayakumar V, Campbell CC, 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission. I. Description of study site, general methodology, and study population. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 :635–640.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Service MW, 1993. Mosquito Ecology. Field Sampling Methods. Essex, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science Publishers.

  • 33

    Wirtz RA, Zavala F, Charoenvit Y, Campbell GH, Burkot TR, Schneider I, Esser KM, Beaudoin RL, Andre RG, 1987. Comparative testing of monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites for ELISA development. Bull World Health Organ 65 :39–45.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Scott JA, Brogdon WG, Collins FH, 1993. Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 :520–529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, Nahlen BL, Gimnig JE, Kariuki SK, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, 2003. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl 4):121–127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Gillies MT, De Meillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa, South of the Sahara. Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Institute of Medical Research.

  • 37

    Miller JE, Gibson G, 1994. Behavioral response of host-seeking mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to insecticide-impregnated bed netting: a new approach to insecticide bioassays. J Med Entomol 31 :114–122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Jawara M, McBeath J, Lines JD, Pinder M, Sanyang F, Greenwood BM, 1998. Comparison of bednets treated with alphacypermethrin, permethrin or lambdacyhalothrin against Anopheles gambiae in the Gambia. Med Vet Entomol 12 :60–66.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EFFECT OF PERMETHRIN-TREATED BED NETS ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIA VECTORS IN WESTERN KENYA

View More View Less
  • 1 Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

The effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in neighboring villages lacking ITNs was studied during a randomized controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. There was a trend of decreased abundance of Anopheles gambiae with decreasing distance from intervention villages both before (P = 0.027) and after (P = 0.002) introduction of ITNs, but this trend was significantly stronger after ITNs were introduced (P = 0.05). For An. funestus, no pre-intervention trend was observed (P = 0.373), but after the intervention, a trend of decreased abundance with closer proximity to intervention compounds developed (P = 0.027). Reduction in mosquito populations in villages lacking ITNs was most apparent in compounds located within 600 meters of intervention villages. Sporozoite infection rates decreased in control areas following the introduction of ITNs (P < 0.001 for both species), but no spatial association was detected between sporozoite rates and distance to nearest intervention village. We conclude that high coverage of ITNs is associated with a community-wide suppression of mosquito populations that is detectable in neighboring villages lacking ITNs, thereby affording individuals residing in these villages some protection against malaria.

Save