EFFECTS OF PERMETHRIN-TREATED BED NETS ON IMMUNITY TO MALARIA IN WESTERN KENYA II. ANTIBODY RESPONSES IN YOUNG CHILDREN IN AN AREA OF INTENSE MALARIA TRANSMISSION

SIMON K. KARIUKI Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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ALTAF A. LAL Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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DIANNE J. TERLOUW Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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FEIKO O. TER KUILE Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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JOHN M. O. ONG’ECHA Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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PENELOPE A. PHILLIPS-HOWARD Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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ALLOYS S. S. ORAGO Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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MARGARETTE S. KOLCZAK Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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WILLIAM A. HAWLEY Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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BERNARD L. NAHLEN Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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YA PING SHI Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine & AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Zoology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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As part of a large community-based trial on the impact of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on childhood morbidity and mortality in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya, we assessed the effects of ITNs on malaria-specific humoral responses in young children. The IgG responses to Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1) and the blood stage antigen merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-119 kD) in children less than three years old were investigated during a series of cross-sectional surveys. At 14 and 22 months after the introduction of ITNs, the frequencies and levels of IgG to CSP and LSA-1 were significantly lower in children from ITN villages than in children from control villages (P < 0.001). In contrast, the prevalence of IgG to MSP-1 was significantly higher in children from ITN villages at 14 months (P = 0.0069), but not at 22 months. Our results show that decreased exposure by ITNs reduces IgG responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens, but there was no evidence that two years of ITN use compromises IgG responses to blood stage antigens in these young children in this malaria holoendemic area.

Author Notes

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