• 1

    Michael E, Bundy DAP, Grenfell BT, 1996. Re-assessing the global prevalence and distribution of lymphatic filariasis. Parasitology 112 :409–428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Weerasooriya MV, Weerasooriya TR, Gunawardena NK, Samarawickrema WA, Kimura E, 2001. Epidemiology of bancroftian filariasis in three suburban areas of Matara, Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95 :263–273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Witt C, Ottesen EA, 2001. Lymphatic filariasis: an infection of childhood. Trop Med Int Health 6 :582–606.

  • 4

    Ramzy RMR, Hafez ON, Gad AM, Faris R, Harb M, Buck AA, Weil GJ, 1994. Efficient assessment of filariasis endemicity by screening for filarial antigenaemia in a sentinel population. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 :41–44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Mahanty S, Day KP, Alpers MP, Kazura JW, 1994. Antifilarial IgG4 antibodies in children from filaria-endemic areas correlate with duration of infection and are dissociated from antifilarial IgE antibodies. J Infect Dis 170 :1339–1343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Chanteau S, Glaziou P, Plichart C, Luquiaud P, Moulia-Pelat JP, N’Guyen L, Cartel JL, 1995. Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia: age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, circulating antigen, and specific IgG and IgG4 responses according to transmission level. Int J Parasitol 25 :81–85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Itoh M, Weerasooriya MV, Qiu X-G, Gunawardena NK, Anantaphruti MT, Tesana S, Rattanaxay P, Fujimaki Y, Kimura E, 2001. Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in urine samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 :362–365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Weerasooriya MV, Itoh M, Mudalige MPS, Qiu X-G, Kimura E, Gunawardena NK, Fujimaki Y, 2003. Human infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in Matara, Sri Lanka: the use, in parallel, of an ELISA to detect filaria-specific IgG4 in urine and of ICT card tests to detect filarial antigen in whole blood. Ann Trop Med Parasitol (in press).

  • 9

    Simonsen PE, Lemnge MM, Msangeni HA, Jakobsen PH, Bygbjerg IC, 1996. Bancroftian filariasis: the patterns of filarial-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG4, and circulating antigens in an endemic community of northeastern Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 :69–75.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Hitch WL, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, 1997. Investigation of the influence of maternal infection with Wuchereria bancrofti on the humoral and cellular responses of neonates to filarial antigens. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91 :461–469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Terhell AJ, Price R, Koot JWM, Abadi K, Yazdanbakhsh M, 2000. The development of specific IgG4 and IgE in a paediatric population is influenced by filarial endemicity and gender. Parasitology 121 :535–543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Rocha A, Addiss D, Ribeiro ME, Norões J, Baliza M, Medeiros Z, Dreyer G, 1996. Evaluation of the Og4C3 ELISA in Wuchereria bancrofti infection: infected persons with undetectable or ultra-low microfilarial densities. Trop Med Int Health 1 :859–864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Itoh M, Weerasooriya MV, Gunawardena NK, Mudalige MPS, Samarawickrema WA, Kimura E, 1999. Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia in Sri Lanka. Trop Med Int Health 4 :207–210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Pani SP, Hoti SL, Elango A, Yuvaraj J, Lall R, Ramaiah KD, 2000. Evaluation of the ICT whole blood antigen card test to detect infection due to nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti in South India. Trop Med Int Health 5 :359–363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Lammie PJ, Reiss MD, Dimock KA, Streit TG, Roberts JM, Eberhard ML, 1998. Longitudinal analysis of the development of filarial infection and antifilarial immunity in a cohort of Haitian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :217–221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Weil GJ, Ramzy RMR, El Setouhy M, Kandil AM, Ahmed ES, Faris R, 1999. A longitudinal study of Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile Delta of Egypt: baseline data and one-year follow-up. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :53–58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Meyrowitsch DW, Simonsen PE, Makunde WH, 1995. Bancroftian filariasis: analysis of infection and disease in five endemic communities of north-eastern Tanzania. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 89 :653–663.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Terhell AJ, Wahyuni S, Pryce A, Koot JWM, Abadi K, Yazdanbakhsh M, 2002. Anti-filarial and total IgG4 and IgE antibody levels are correlated in mothers and their offspring. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 :334–339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

PREVALENCE AND LEVELS OF FILARIA-SPECIFIC URINARY IgG4 AMONG CHILDREN LESS THAN FIVE YEARS OF AGE AND THE ASSOCIATION OFANTIBODY POSITIVITY BETWEEN CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka; Department of Parasitology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
Restricted access

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect filaria-specific urinary IgG4 was tested in samples from 203 children less than five years old and their parents (165 mothers and 127 fathers) in Sri Lanka. There were four IgG4-positive children within 58 days after birth, suggesting the transfer of the antibody from mothers. No positive children were found between days 65 and 417. After day 1,000, the number of the positive individuals and the level of IgG4 increased quickly. The children of urinary IgG4-positive parents showed a higher IgG4 positive rate than those of negative parents. The children of positive mothers had a higher prevalence than those of negative mothers, whereas, the positivity of the fathers was not associated with that of their children. Collecting urine samples was easy to perform and well accepted because of its non-invasiveness. The ELISA will be useful for monitoring filarial infections in very young children, who are a sentinel population for evaluating the intensity of filariasis transmission and effectiveness of control measures.

Save