INTERLEUKIN-8, TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α, AND LACTOFERRIN IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOSTS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AND BRAZILIAN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS

CIRLE S. ALCANTARA Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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CHANG-HUN YANG Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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THEODORE S. STEINER Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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LEAH J. BARRETT Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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ALDO A. M. LIMA Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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CYNTHIA L. CHAPPELL Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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PABLO C. OKHUYSEN Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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A. CLINTON WHITE JR. Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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RICHARD L. GUERRANT Division of Geographic and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of DongGuk College of Medicine, Kyungju; Korea; Clinical Research Unit, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health; Houston, Texas; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas-Houston Medical School; Houston, Texas; Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

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To examine the importance of intestinal inflammation in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of human cryptosporidiosis, stools of healthy adult volunteers before and after experimental infection were tested for fecal lactoferrin, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Stool samples of Brazilian children with well-defined Cryptosporidium infection, with or without diarrhea, were also tested for IL-8 and TNF-α. Only one of the 14 volunteers challenged with Cryptosporidium had increased fecal lactoferrin. However, of 17 stool specimens from children with only Cryptosporidium infection from a previous study, 12 had mild to moderately elevated lactoferrin despite negative work-up for inflammatory enteritides. One of 10 adult volunteers who developed diarrhea with experimental cryptosporidiosis and three of 11 children with cryptosporidiosis and diarrhea had detectable fecal IL-8. The level of TNF-α was increased only in one of 14 volunteers and in none of the children. Although considered relatively non-inflammatory, cryptosporidiosis is often associated with mild inflammation, especially in children in an endemic area.

Author Notes

  • 1

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    Seydel KB, Zhang T, Champion GA, Fichtenbaum C, Swanson PE, Tzipori S, Griffiths JK, Stanley SL Jr, 1998. Cryptosporidium parvum infection of human intestinal xenografts in SCID mice induces production of human tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-8. Infect Immun 66 :2379–2382.

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    Guerrant DI, Moore SR, Lima AA, Patrick PD, Schorling JB, Guerrant RL, 1999. Association of early childhood diarrhea and cryptosporidiosis with impaired physical fitness and cognitive function four-seven years later in a poor urban community in northeast Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :707–713.

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