• 1

    Chambers TJ, Hahn CS, Galler R, Rice CM, 1990. Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and replication. Annu Rev Microbiol. 44 :649–688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Dalrymple JM, Shope RE, Porterfield JS, Westaway EG, Brandt WE, 1989. Antigenic relationships between flaviviruses as determined by cross-neutralization tests with polyclonal antisera. J Gen Virol 70 :37–43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Halstead SB, Yamarat C, Scanlon JE, 1963. The Thai hemorrhagic fever epidemic of 1962 (A preliminary report). J Med Assoc Thai 46 :449–462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Halstead SB, 1990. Global epidemiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 21: 636–641.

  • 5

    Halstead SB, 1992. The XXth Century Dengue Pandemic: Need for Surveillance and Research. World Health Stat Q 45 :292–298.

  • 6

    Office of the Permanent Secretary for Public Health, 1999. Annual Epidemiological Surveillance Report. Thailand Ministry of Public Health.

  • 7

    Halstead SB, 1965. Dengue and hemorrhagic fevers of Southeast Asia. Yale J Biol Med 37 :434–454.

  • 8

    Halstead SB, 1966. Epidemiological studies of Thai haemorrhagic fever, 1962–64. Bull World Health Organ. 35 :80–81.

  • 9

    Halstead SB, Udomsakdi S, Singharaj P, Nisalak A, 1969. Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962–1964. III. Clinical, epidemiology, and virologic observations on disease in non-indigenous white persons. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18 :984–996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Halstead SB, Nimmannitya S, Margiotta MR, 1969. Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962–1964: II. Observations on Disease in Outpatients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18 :972–983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Burke DS, Nisalak A, Johnson DE, Scott RM, 1988. A prospective study of dengue infections in Bangkok. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38 :172–180.

  • 12

    World Health Organization, 1999. Guidelines for treatment of dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever in small hospitals. New Delhi: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 5.

  • 13

    Innis BL, Nisalak A, Nimmannitya S, Kusalerdchariya S, Chongswasdi V, Suntayakorn S, Puttisri P, Hoke CH Jr, 1989. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to characterize dengue infections where dengue and Japanese encephalitis co-circulate. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40 :418–427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Kliks SC, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Burke DS, 1988. Evidence that maternal dengue antibodies are important in the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38 :411–419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Kliks SC, Nisalak A, Brandt WE, Wahl L, Burke DS, 1989. Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus growth in human monocytes as a risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40 :444–451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Gubler DJ, Kuno G, Sather GE, Waterman SH, 1985. A case of natural concurrent human infection with two dengue viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34 :170–173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Nimmannitya S, Halstead SB, Cohen S, Margiotta MR, 1969. Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962–1964. I. Observations on hospitalized patients with hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18 :954–971.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Halstead SB, Scanlon J, Umpaivit P, Udomsakdi S, 1969. Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962–1964: IV. Epidemiologic studies in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18 :997–1021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Halstead SB, Udomsakdi S, Scanlon J, Rohitayodhin S, 1969. Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962–1964: V. Epidemiologic observations outside Bangkok. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18 :1022–1033.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Jetten TH, Focks DA, 1997. Potential changes in the distribution of dengue transmission under climate warming. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 :285–297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Watts DM, Burke DS, Harrison BA, Whitmire RE, Nisalak A, 1987. Effect of temperature on the vector efficiency of Aedes aegypti for dengue 2 virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36 :143–152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Hales S, Weinstein P, Woodward A, 1996. Dengue fever epidemics in the South Pacific: driven by El Nino Southern Oscillation? [letter]. Lancet 348 :1664–1665.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Kuno G, 1995. Review of the factors modulating dengue transmission. Epidemiol Rev 17 :321–335.

  • 24

    Hay S, Myers M, Burke D, Vaughn DW, Endy T, Ananda N, Shanks G, Snow R, Rogers D, 2000. Etiology of interepidemic periods of mosquito-borne disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 :9335–9339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Fine P, 1993. Herd immunity: history, theory, practice. Epidemiol.Rev. 15 :265–301.

  • 26

    Kliks S, 1990. Antibody-enhanced infection of monocytes as the pathogenetic mechanism for severe dengue illness. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6 :993–998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Halstead SB, Larsen K, Kliks S, Peiris JSM, Cardosa MJ, Porterfield JS, 1983. Comparison of P388D-1 mouse macrophage cell line and human monocytes for assay of dengue-2 infection-enhancing antibodies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 :157–163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Yuill TM, Sukhavachana P, Nisalak A, Russell PK, 1968. Dengue-virus recovery by direct and delayed plaques in LLC-MK2 cells. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17 :441–448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Watts DM, Harrison BA, Nisalak A, Scott RM, Burke DS, 1982. Evaluation of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) as a bioassay host for dengue viruses. J Med Entomol 19 :54–59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Kuberski TT, Rosen L, 1977. A simple technique for the detection of dengue antigen in mosquitoes by immunofluorescence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26 :533–537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Henchal EA, McCown JM, Seguin MC, Gentry MK, Brandt WE, 1983. Rapid identification of dengue virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 :164–169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Kuno G, Gubler DJ, Santiago de Weil NS, 1985. Antigen capture ELISA for the identification of dengue viruses. J Virol Methods 12 :93–103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Lanciotti RS, Calisher CH, Gubler DJ, Chang GJ, Vorndam AV, 1992. Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30 :545–551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Clarke DH, Casals J, 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7 :561–573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Russell PK, Nisalak A, Sukhavachana P, Vivona S, 1967. A plaque reduction test for dengue virus neutralization antibodies. J Immunol 99 :285–290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Golman M, 1960. Fluorescent Antibody Methods. New York: Academic Press.

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEROTYPE-SPECIFIC DENGUE VIRUS CIRCULATION AND DENGUE DISEASE IN BANGKOK, THAILAND FROM 1973 TO 1999

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand; Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Pediatrics, Chulalongkorn Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of International Health, Center for Immunization Research, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD; U.S. GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA; Department of Virus Diseases, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD

Dengue virus circulation and association with epidemics and severe dengue disease were studied in hospitalized children with suspected dengue at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health in Bangkok, Thailand, from 1973 to 1999. Dengue serology was performed on all patients and viral isolation attempted on laboratory-confirmed patients. Acute dengue was diagnosed in 15,569 children and virus isolated from 4,846. DEN-3 was the most frequent serotype in primary dengue (49% of all isolates), DEN-2 in secondary and in dengue hemorrhagic fever (37% and 35%, respectively). The predominant dengue serotype varied by year: DEN-1 from 1990–92, DEN-2 from 1973–86 and 1988–89; DEN-3 in 1987 and 1995–99; and DEN-4 from 1993–94. Only DEN-3 was associated with severe outbreak years. Our findings illustrate the uniqueness of each serotype in producing epidemics and severe disease and underscore the importance of long-term surveillance of dengue serotypes in understanding the epidemiology of these viruses.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Timothy P. Endy, Division of Virology, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St., Fort Detrick, MD 21702-5011
Save