• 1

    Edirisinghe JS, 1988. Historical references to malaria in Sri Lanka and some notable episodes up to present times. Ceylon Med J 33 :110–117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Konradsen F, Steele P, Perera D, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, 1999. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka. Bull World Health Organ 77 :301–309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Gamage-Mendis AC, Carter R, Mendis C, De Zoysa APK, Herath PRJ, Mendis KN, 1991. Clustering of malaria infections within an endemic population: risk of malaria associated with the type of housing construction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 :77–85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Gunawardena DM, Wickremasinghe AR, Muthuwatta L, Weerasingha S, Rajakaruna J, Senanayaka T, Kotta PK, Attanayake N, Carter R, Mendis KN, 1998. Malaria risk factors in an endemic region of Sri Lanka, and the impact and cost implications of risk factor-based interventions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 :533–542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Van der Hoek W, Konradsen F, Dijkstra DS, Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, 1998. Risk factors for malaria: a microepidemiological study in a village in Sri Lanka. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 :265–269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Amerasinghe FP, Konradsen F, Fonseka KT, Amerasinghe PH, 1997. Anopheles (Diptera: culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka. J Med Entomol 34 :290–297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, Konradsen F, Fonseka KT, Wirtz RA, 1999. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 :421–429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Amerasinghe FP, Ariyasena TG, 1990. Larval survey of surface water-breeding mosquitoes during irrigation development in the Mahaweli Project, Sri Lanka. J Med Entomol 27 :789–802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Herath PRJ, Joshi GP, 1989. Pesticide selection pressure on Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka: comparison with two other Sri Lankan anophelines. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83 :565–567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Rajendram S, Jayewickreme SH, 1951. Malaria in Ceylon. Part I. The control and prevention of epidemic malaria by the residual spraying of houses with D.D.T. Indian J Malariol 5 :1–73.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    NARESA, (Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka), 1991. Natural Resources of Sri Lanka: Conditions and Trends. Colombo, Sri Lanka.

  • 12

    Amerasinghe FP, Ariyasena TG, 1991. A survey of adult mosquitoes during irrigation development in the Mahaweli project, Sri Lanka. J Med Entomol 28 :387–393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Amerasinghe FP, Munasingha NB, 1988. A predevelopment mosquito survey in the Mahaweli development project area, Sri Lanka: Adults. J Med Entomol 25 :276–285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STRONG ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HOUSE CHARACTERISTICS AND MALARIA VECTORS IN SRI LANKA

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of International Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; Anti-Malaria Campaign, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period. The type of house construction and the exact location of all houses were determined. In a multivariate analysis, distance of less than 750 meters between a house and the main vector-breeding site was strongly associated with the presence of Anopheles culicifacies in the house (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4–6.8) and to a lesser extent with the presence of An. subpictus (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.7). Poor housing construction also was an independent risk factor (OR for An. culicifacies 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.9; OR for An. subpictus 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.6). It is recommended that a malaria control strategy focus on residential areas within 750 meters of streams and rivers, with special attention given to areas with the poorest type of house construction.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Wim van der Hoek, Bierstalpad 37, 1121 JK Landsmeer, Netherlands, Telephone: +31-20-4826312, Fax: +94-1-786854, E-mail: w.van-der-hoek@cgiar.org
Save