• 1

    Thomson M, Connor S, 2000. Environmental information systems for the control of arthropod vectors of disease. Med Vet Entomol 14 :227–244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Hay SI, Randolph SE, Rogers DJ, eds., 2000. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems in Epidemiology. Vol 47 of Advances in Parasitology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  • 3

    Desjeux P, 1991. Information on the Epidemiology and Control of Leishmaniasis by Country and Territory. Unpublished document. WHO/LEISH/91.30. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 4

    Desjeux P, 1996. Leishmaniasis: public health aspects and control. Clin Dermatol 14 :417–423.

  • 5

    Ashford RW, 1996. Leishmaniasis reservoirs and their significance in control. Clin Dermatol 14 :523–532.

  • 6

    Elnaiem DA, Hassan MM, Maingon R, Nureldin GH, Mekawi AM, Miles M, Ward RD, 2001. The Egyptian mongoose, Her-pestes ichneumon, is a possible reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. Parasitology 122 :531–536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Ashford RW, Thomson MC, 1991. Visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan: a delayed development disaster? Ann Trop Med Para-sitol 85 :571–572

  • 8

    Zijlstra EE, El Hassan AM, Ghalib HW, Ismael A, 1994. Endemic kala-azar in eastern Sudan: a longitudinal study on the incidence of clinical and subclinical disease and post–kala-azar-dermal leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 :826–836.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    El-Hassan AM, Zijlstra EE, Ismael A, Ghalib HW, 1995. Recent observations on the epidemiology of kala-azar in the eastern and central states of the Sudan. Trop Geogr Med 47 :151–156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Seaman J, Mercer AJ, Sondorp E, 1996. The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in Western Upper Nile, Southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994. Int J Epidemiol 25 :862–971.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Hoogstraal H, Heynemann D, 1969. Leishmaniasis in the Sudan Republic. 30. Final epidemiological report. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18 :1091–1210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Zeese W, Frank W, 1987. Present epidemiological situation of VL in the Republic of Sudan. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 264 :414–421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Elnaiem DA, Hassan HK, Ward RD, 1997. Phlebotomine sand-flies in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in a border area of eastern Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91 :307–318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Elnaiem DA, Ward RD, Hassan HK, Miles M, Frame I, 1998. Infection rates of Leishmania donovani in Phlebotomus orien-talis.Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 :229–232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Elnaiem DA, Thomson M, Mukhtar M, Hassan HK, Aboud MA, Conner S, Ashford RW, 1998. Environmental determinants of the distribution of the vector of kala-azar in Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 :877–887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Thomson M, Elnaiem DA, Ashford RW, Conner S, 1999. Towards a kala-azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. Trop Med Int Health 4 :105–113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Pavlovsky EN, 1966. The Natural Nidality of Transmissible Disease. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

  • 18

    Killick-Kendrick R, 1990. Phlebotomine vectors of leishmaniasis: a review. Med Vet Entomol 4 :1–24

  • 19

    Quate LW, 1964. Phlebotomus sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae). J Med Entomol 1 :213–268

  • 20

    Ashford RW, 1974. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Ethiopia: taxonomic and biological notes. J Med Entomol 11 :605–616.

  • 21

    Schorscher JA, Goris M, 1992. Incrimination of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in western Upper Nile Province, southern Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 :622–623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Elnaiem DA, Hassan HK, Ward RD, 1999. Association of Phlebotomus orientalis and other sandflies with vegetation types in the eastern Sudan focus of kala-azar. Med Vet Entomol 13 :198–203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Hall JB, Walker DH, 1991. Balanites aegyptiaca. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication 7. Bangor, Wales: University of Wales.

  • 24

    Hall JB, McAllan A, 1993. Acacia seyal. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication 8. Bangor, Wales: University of Wales.

  • 25

    Bergquist NR, 2001. Vector-borne parasitic diseases: new trends in data collection and risk assessment. Acta Trop 79 :13–20.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

RISK MAPPING OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: THE ROLE OF LOCAL VARIATION IN RAINFALL AND ALTITUDE ON THE PRESENCE AND INCIDENCE OF KALA-AZAR IN EASTERN SUDAN

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan; MSF-Holland, Maison Porpigna, Buzy, France; University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Institute of Biotechnology, National Centre for Research, Sudan
Restricted access

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by environmental factors. A model was developed for mapping the distribution and incidence of VL in Gedaref State, eastern Sudan, in relation to different environmental factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) were used to extract and map regression results for environmental variables of 190 villages in Gedaref State, including rainfall, vegetation status, soil type, altitude, distance from river, topography, wetness indexes, and average rainfall estimates. VL incidence in each village was calculated from hospital records. By use of logistic and linear multivariate regression analyses, models were developed to determine which environmental factors explain variability in VL presence and incidence. We found that average rainfall and the altitude were the best predictors of VL incidence. The resulting models were mapped by GIS software predicting both VL presence or absence and incidence at any locality in Gedaref State. The results are discussed in relation to VL control.

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Madeleine C. Thomson, International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI), Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, 10964, Telephone: 845-680-4413, Fax: 845-680-4866, E-mail: mthomson@ iri.columbia.edu. Dia-Eldin A. Elnaiem, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Sudan, E-mail: dialnaiem@hotmail.com
Save