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Aotus monkeys were infected with a strain of Plasmodium vivax from Panama to determine its potential for the testing of malarial vaccines. After sporozoite inoculation, 3 splenectomized Aotus nancymai that had been infected previously with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax had prepatent periods of 13, 15, and 15 days with maximum parasite counts of 12,726/microl, 5,310/microl, and 9,180/microl. Three other A. nancymai previously infected with P. falciparum only had prepatent periods of 17, 15, and 15 days with maximum parasite counts of 44,460/microl, 31,500/microl, and 42,660/microl. One monkey with no previous history of infection had a prepatent period of 14 days after sporozoite inoculation, and a maximum parasite count of 100,000/microl; detectable parasitemia persisted for almost 500 days with 13 recognizable peaks in the parasite count. Anopheles dirus, Anopheles freeborni, Anopheles stephensi, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes were readily infected with the Panama strain.