The contribution of roof gutters to Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Skuse) pupal populations was quantified for the first time in Cairns, Australia. Concurrent yard and roof surveys yielded an estimated 6,934 mosquito pupae, comprising four species. Roof gutters were an uncommon but productive source of Ae. aegypti in both wet season (n = 11) and dry season (n = 2) surveys, producing 52.6% and 39.5% of the respective populations. First story gutters accounted for 92.3% of the positive gutters. Therefore, treatment of roof gutters is a critical element in Ae. aegypti control campaigns during dengue outbreaks. In wet season yards, the largest standing crops of Ae. aegypti occurred in garden accoutrements, discarded household items, and rubbish (36.4%, 28.0%, and 20.6%, respectively). In dry season yards, rubbish produced 79.6% of the Ae. aegypti pupae. The number of Ae. aegypti pupae/person was 2.36 and 0.59 for the wet and dry season surveys, respectively.