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In neurocysticercosis (NCC), it is thought that the long-term survival of the parasite within the human brain is due in part to the ability of the cestode to suppress the local immune response. When the parasite dies, the immunosuppression is apparently lost and a strong local inflammatory response then develops. In contrast, little is known about the immunologic response that may occur in the peripheral immune system of these patients. In this study, the status of the peripheral (extracerebral) cellular and humoral response was evaluated in patients with a history of NCC. The in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mitogens and foreign antigens was similar in patients and controls. Importantly, a substantive response was elicited by two Taenia solium metacestode antigens. In addition, 8 of 10 patients had a detectable humoral response to the antigenic glycoproteins of the cestode. Considering both the cellular and humoral response, all of the patients with NCC presented an active peripheral immunity.