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Chagas' disease, a systemic illness endemic to some regions of South America, is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Transplacental infection may occur during any phase and cause fetal death. This study is the first to characterize the inflammatory cells in chagasic villitis by immunohistochemistry. Paraffin sections of 8 placentas with villitis by T. cruzi (4 live births and 4 stillbirths), as well as 8 control placentas without inflammation, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, monoclonal antibodies for CD45RO, CD20, CD45RO/OPD4, CD8, HNKI, CD15, MAC387, and CD68 proteins, and a polyclonal antibody for S-100 protein. Quantification of positive cells was performed in 3 different high-power fields. In all cases of chagasic villitis, the inflammatory infiltrate was composed mainly of CD68+ macrophages, T lymphocytes, and a few natural killer cells. Among T cells, CD8+ cells outnumbered CD4+ cells in all placentas (CD4+:CD8+ ratios ranged from 0.04 to 0.38). B cells were absent or rare. In stillbirths, villitis was diffuse and severe with numerous T. cruzi, while in live births it was focal with few parasites. Other features that characterized villitis in stillbirths were 1) frequent trophoblastic necrosis, 2) presence of MAC387+ macrophages and CD15+ granulocytes attached to the sites of trophoblastic necrosis, 3) low CD4+: CD8+ ratios in most cases, 4) increased numbers of S-100 positive cells in the villous stroma. In conclusion, CD68+ macrophages and CD8+ T lymphocytes were the major cell population in villitis caused by T. cruzi. However, the pattern of inflammatory reaction differed between stillbirths and live births and was probably related to the number of parasites in the placental villi.