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Isolates from 25 (13 sporadic and 12 outbreak) cryptosporidiosis cases, 24 of which were from British Columbia, Canada, were characterized using nested polymerase chain reaction amplification of the polymorphic internal transcribed spacer 1 locus. Two predominant Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes were found. Twelve (8 sporadic and 4 outbreak) isolates amplified with the cry7/cry21 primer pair and 12 (5 sporadic and 7 outbreak) isolates amplified with the cry7/cryITS1 primer pair. Multi-locus gene analysis using sequence polymorphisms on 3 other loci, i.e., the thrombospondin-related adhesion protein gene, the dihydrofolate reductase gene, and the 18S rRNA gene on 8 (4 outbreak and 4 sporadic) isolates showed non-random association among the human and animal alleles of the 4 different C. parvum gene loci. Associations between these 2 parasite genotypes and different routes of cryptosporidiosis transmission such as zoonotic, anthroponotic, and waterborne transmission were studied using municipal population and agricultural information, as well as detection of C. parvum oocysts in municipal drinking water specimens of the residential communities of sporadic and outbreak cases.