CGP 56697, a new oral fixed combination of artemether and benflumetol, was tested in a double-blinded, randomized trial in 252 adult patients treated either with CGP 56697 (4 x 4 tablets each containing 20 mg of artemether and 120 mg of benflumetol, given at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hr), or with mefloquine (three tablets of 250 mg at initial diagnosis, followed by two tablets of 250 mg at 8 hr). Baseline data of the two groups were comparable. The 28-day cure rate with CGP 56697 was lower than with mefloquine (69.3% versus 82.4%; P = 0.002). However, CGP 56697 was more effective than mefloquine in parasite clearance time (43 hr versus 66 hr; P < 0.001) fever clearance time (32 hr versus 54 hr; P < 0.005), and gametocyte clearance time (152 hr versus 331 hr; P < 0.001). This study revealed that CGP 56697 is effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand, but higher doses will probably be needed to improve the cure rate.