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A study was conducted in Lima, Peru to determine if patients with Strongyloides hyperinfection had human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-I) infection. The study included patients with Strongyloides hyperinfection and a control group consisted of sex- and age-matched asymptomatic healthy individuals whose stools were negative for Strongyloides. A third group included patients with intestinal strongyloidiasis. Sera from each study subject were tested for HTLV-1/2I by an ELISA and Western blot. The HLTV-1 infection rates (85.7%, 18 of 21) were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with Strongyloides hyperinfection compared with the control group (4.7%, 1 of 21). The HTLV-1 rate (10%, 6 of 62) for patients with intestinal strongyloidiasis was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than patients with Strongyloides hyperinfection, but did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) from the control group. The association of HTLV-1 infection was observed among 17 of 19 patients more than 20 years of age and one of two younger patients. None had HTLV-2 infection. In conclusion, Strongyloides hyperinfection among Peruvian patients was highly associated with HTLV-1 infection.