A fever case management (CM) approach using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was compared with two presumptive intertmittent SP treatment regimens in the second and third trimesters in pregnant primigravidae and secundigravidae in an area of intense Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in western Kenya. The investigation evaluated efficacy of the antimalarial regimens for prevention of placental malaria and examined the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antimalarial drug efficacy and adverse drug reactions. Twenty-seven percent (93 of 343) of pregnant women in the CM group had placental malaria compared with 12% (38 of 330; P < 0.001) of women who received two doses of SP and compared with 9% (28 of 316; P < 0.001) of women who received monthly SP. Fourteen percent (49 of 341) of women in the CM group delivered low birth weight (LBW) infants compared with 8% (27 of 325; P=0.118) of women who received two doses of SP and compared with 8% (26 of 331; P=0.078) of women who received monthly SP. Seven percent (7 of 99) of the HIV-negative women on the two-dose SP regimen had placental malaria compared with 25% (10 of 39; P=0.007) of HIV-positive women on the same regimen; the rate of placental malaria in HIV-positive women was reduced to 7% (2 of 28; P=-0.051) for women on the monthly SP regimen. Less than 2% of women reported adverse drug reactions, with no statistically significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Intermittent treatment with SP is safe and efficacious for the prevention of placental malaria in pregnant primigravidae and secundigravidae in sub-Saharan Africa. While a two-dose SP regimen may be effective in areas with low HIV seroprevalence, administration of SP monthly during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy should be considered in areas of high HIV seroprevalence to prevent the effects of maternal malaria on the newborn.