Epidemiology of endemic Oropouche virus transmission in upper Amazonian Peru.

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  • 1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8034, USA.
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A cross-sectional serosurvey of a rural community near Iquitos, Peru was conducted to determine Oropouche (ORO) virus antibody prevalence and risk factors for human infection. Venous blood samples, and demographic, social, and risk factor data were obtained from people age five years of age and older who lived in the village of Santa Clara on the Nanay River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Sera were tested for ORO viral antibody by an ELISA. The specificity of viral antibody reactivity was determined by a standard plaque-reduction neutralization test. Interview data were analyzed by univariate and multiple logistic regression to determine which variables were statistically associated with previous ORO viral infection, as indicated by the presence of IgG antibody. Final models were evaluated based on log-likelihood and Wald chi-square. Clustering of seropositive residents within houses was analyzed by the method of Walter. Among 1,227 persons sampled, 33.7% (n=414) were positive for ORO viral IgG antibody. Overall, antibody prevalence was similar for males (33.9%) and females (33.6%), and increased significantly with age for both sexes to include more than half of persons more than 25 years of age. The length of residence in the village was positively associated with serologic status; persons who had moved to the village within the past 15 years were less likely to be seropositive than life-long residents of the same age. Antibody prevalence among immigrants who had lived in Santa Clara more than 15 years was similar to that in life-long residents. The activity most predictive of previous ORO viral infection was travel to forest communities and travel to Iquitos. No evidence of spatial heterogeneity in ORO virus antibody distribution was observed. Results suggested that endemic transmission of ORO virus in this region has been ongoing during many decades, and that people are at considerable risk of infection.