Cryptosporidiosis in Indonesia: a hospital-based study and a community-based survey.

T KatsumataDepartment of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan.

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D HoseaDepartment of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan.

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E B WasitoDepartment of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan.

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S KohnoDepartment of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan.

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K HaraDepartment of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan.

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P SoepartoDepartment of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan.

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I G RanuhDepartment of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan.

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Hospital-based and community-based studies were conducted to understand the prevalence and mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in Surabaya, Indonesia. In both studies people with and without diarrhea were examined for oocysts. A community-based survey included questionnaires to a community and stool examination of cats. Questionnaires covered demographic information, health status, and hygienic indicators. In the hospital, C. parvum oocysts were found in 26 (2.8%) of 917 patients with diarrhea and 15 (1.4%) of 1,043 control patients. The most susceptible age was less than two years old. The prevalence was higher during the rainy season. A community-based study again showed that C. parvum oocysts were frequently detected in diarrhea samples (8.2%), exclusively during rainy season. Thirteen (2.4%) of 532 cats passed C. parvum oocysts. A multiple logistic regression model indicated that contact with cats, rain, flood, and crowded living conditions are significant risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection.

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