Epidemiologic, genetic, and clinical associations among phenotypically distinct populations of Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia.

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  • 1 Corporación Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas, Cali, Colombia.
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Phenotypic characterization of 511 strains of Leishmania, subgenus Viannia, isolated from Colombian patients was conducted based on electrophoretic polymorphisms of 13 isoenzymes. Ninety-one Colombian strains of L. braziliensis were the most heterogeneous, constituting seven zymodemes while 397 L. panamensis and 22 L. guyanensis strains yielded five and three zymodemes, respectively. Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, nucleoside hydrolase, and superoxide dismutase were the most polymorphic enzymes in this collection of strains, and together with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, allowed the discrimination of the three aforementioned species. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the zymodemes using Jaccard's coefficient of similarities revealed two clusters, one constituted by L. braziliensis zymodemes, and another by three subgroups consisting of zymodemes of L. panamensis closely related to the species reference strain, another consisting of L. guyanensis zymodemes, and a third group distinguished by new electromorphs of proline iminopeptidase and aspartate aminotransferase that reacted with the L. panamensis-specific monoclonal antibody B-11. Multiple zymodemes of L. panamensis and L. guyanensis were found to be sympatrically transmitted in foci along the Pacific coast. Leishmania braziliensis variants were ubiquitous throughout the territory of Colombia; L. panamensis was prevalent in the western region and L. guyanensis was prevalent in the Orinoco and Amazon river basins in the eastern half of the country. Distinct zymodemes of L. panamensis predominated in the northern and southern regions of the Pacific coast. Nine zymodemes of all three species were isolated from mucosal lesions. Zymodeme 1.1 of L. braziliensis had the highest frequency of mucosal involvement (10% of the cases), and disease caused by this zymodeme had the longest mean time of evolution (31 months; P = 0.002). In addition to being useful in describing epidemiologic relationships, the intraspecific heterogeneity of strains of the Viannia subgenus within and among foci can be used to understand such fundamental questions as the pathogenicity of different populations of parasites, and the induction of cross-protection against related parasites.