By Richard C. Holcomb, M.D., F.A.C.S., Captain, Medical Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired. With Introduction by C. S. Butler, A.B., M.D., Li.D., Rear Admiral, Medical Corps, U. S. Navy. Pp. 1-189. Froben Press. New York. 1937
Pulmonary fibrosis was induced following inoculation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia intranasally in BALB/c mice. Fibrosis was associated with formation of granulomas, increase in lung hydroxyproline, and sustained increases in tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta. This study suggests a role for these cytokines in generation of pulmonary fibrosis associated with chronic granulomatous infectious diseases.