The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between microfilarial clearance and clearance of circulating filarial antigen from the blood of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected persons following chemotherapy with either diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin. Patients received either 12 weekly doses of 6 mg/kg of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), a single dose of 6 mg/kg of DEC, a single dose of 420 µg/kg of ivermectin, or 20 µg/kg of ivermectin, followed by 6 mg/kg of DEC five days later. Microfilarial clearance was marked in all groups, but was significantly less in the single-dose DEC. In contrast, as monitored by the Og4C3 monoclonal anitbody assay, clearance of circulating filarial antigen was highly variable, not only between groups but within each group. As a result, there were few statistically significant differences in antigen clearance between groups. In no instance did the antigen level fall to zero, even in individuals that remained microfilaria negative during two or three years of follow-up. These results suggest that living adult worms persist in almost all persons treated with DEC and/or ivermectin.