Effect of Piped Water Supply on Human Water Contact Patterns in a Schistosoma haematobium-Endemic Area in Coast Province, Kenya

Shinichi NodaDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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Masaaki ShimadaDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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Ngethe D. MuhohoDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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Katsuyuki SatoDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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Francis B. M. KilikuDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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Simon M. GatikaDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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Peter G. WaiyakiDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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Yoshiki AokiDepartment of Medical Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Public Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Kagoshima, Japan

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The effect of a piped water supply on human water contact in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area in Coast Province, Kenya was studied. After the construction of five community standpipes and one shower unit, there was a 35.1% reduction in the number of people observed using river water, a 44.1% reduction in the frequency of contact with river water, and a 25.4% reduction in the amount of contact. The frequency of river water contact per person also decreased significantly, but the amount of contact per person did not decrease. The total frequency of contact decreased significantly except for washing clothes by the river, washing utensils, and fishing. The frequency per person did not change for most of the activities and significantly increased for washing clothes. The frequency of river water contact in households with high piped water consumption showed a significant decrease compared with those with low piped water consumption. The volume of consumption of piped water was inversely proportional to the distance from the home to the community standpipe. These results indicate that in the study area, the effect of a piped water supply on river water contact behavior was heterologous while the total river water contact decreased significantly, and that the piped water had a beneficial effect on some villagers but very little effect on others.

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