Ultrasonographic Assessment of Schistosoma mansoni and S. Haematobium Morbidity in Zimbabwean Schoolchildren

Henrik Friis Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Blair Research Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Humboldt University, Interdisziplinaeres Therapiezentrum, Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Charlottenlund, Denmark

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Patricia Ndhlovu Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Blair Research Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Humboldt University, Interdisziplinaeres Therapiezentrum, Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Charlottenlund, Denmark

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Kizito Kaondera Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Blair Research Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Humboldt University, Interdisziplinaeres Therapiezentrum, Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Charlottenlund, Denmark

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Doris Franke Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Blair Research Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Humboldt University, Interdisziplinaeres Therapiezentrum, Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Charlottenlund, Denmark

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Birgitte Jyding Vennervald Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Blair Research Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Humboldt University, Interdisziplinaeres Therapiezentrum, Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Charlottenlund, Denmark

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Niels Ornbjerg Christensen Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Blair Research Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Humboldt University, Interdisziplinaeres Therapiezentrum, Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Charlottenlund, Denmark

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Ekkehard Doehring Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Blair Research Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Humboldt University, Interdisziplinaeres Therapiezentrum, Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Charlottenlund, Denmark

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Ultrasound examinations for Schistosoma haematobium- and S. mansoni-related morbidity were done in 174 schoolchildren from a subsistence farming community in southern Zimbabwe. The examinations were done according to the standardized protocol elaborated by the Cairo Working Group (the Cairo classification) and the Managil classification. Forty-six percent of the children had grade I periportal thickening (PPT) on ultrasound according to the Cairo classification, but none had grade II or higher. The significance of grade I PPT in the Cairo classification is questionable, since there were no differences between those without and those with grade I PPT with respect to intensity of S. mansoni infection or liver size. The prevalence of grade I PPT according to the Managil classification was 10%, and no association between the two classifications was seen. In multiple regression analysis, S. mansoni egg output was found to be a significant predictor of liver size, when controlling for height and sex. An interaction between S. haematobium and S. mansoni infection is suggested because the positive relationship between S. mansoni and liver size was seen in the presence but not in the absence of S. haematobium infection.

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