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Oliveros virus is an agent isolated in cell culture from Bolomys obscurus (Rodentia, Muridae, Sigmodontinae) captured on the central Argentine pampa. Oliveros virus was shown to be related to members of the Tacaribe complex of the family Arenaviridae by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests, electrophoretic pattern of viral proteins, and morphology as observed by electron microscopy. It was distinct from 12 other arenaviruses by a combination of plaque-reduction neutralization tests, comparison of endpoint titers among cross-IFA tests, and comparison of viral RNA sequence data. This agent is the third new arenavirus from South America described within the last three years.