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A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted to measure risk factors for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Korean soldiers. Between October 1989 and January 1992, 196 cases and 295 controls were admitted into the study. Information was collected on behavioral and environmental variables, and the data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The strongest risk factors were seeing Apodemus in the area (odds ratio [OR] = 4.9), living in a primitive dwelling such as a lean-to (OR = 3.9), and being exposed to dust (OR = 3.7). The most protective factors were living in barracks (OR = 0.3–0.5) and self-reported use of any insecticide or insect repellent (OR = 0.5).