A Focus of Endemic Malaria in Central Java

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  • U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Kokap Health Clinic, Special District of Yogyakarta, Infectious Disease Research Center, National Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health, Subdirectorate for Malaria Control, Directorate of Control of Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia
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This report describes one of the few remaining foci of endemic malaria on the island of Java, the Kokap subdistrict, near the southcentral coast. Kokap was hypoendemic in June 1994 with prevalence of parasitemia at 0.98% (n = 10,606 of 40,246 residents). Plasmodium vivax comprised 63% of infections and P. falciparum all others. The incidence of indigenous infection during 1993 was 48 cases/1,000 person-years (p-yr), and it was relatively uniform among age groups (38 to 53/1,000 p-yr). Nine deaths due to malaria had been recorded in the past three years (8.3 deaths per 100,000 p-yr); the case fatality rate was 0.17%. Subdistricts adjoining Kokap to the north, east, and south reported incidence rates of < 2 cases/1,000 p-yr. To the west, Purworejo District had a high case incidence (11 cases/1,000 p-yr) but other districts to the west did not (< 1.2 cases/1,000 p-yr). The highest case incidence village area within Kokap (169 cases/1,000 p-yr) bordered the district of Purworejo to the west. Endemic malaria in Kokap and Purworejo coincided with where steep hills and narrow valleys dominated the terrain.