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To determine if there is a difference in compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis between febrile travelers with and without malaria, 157 patients with malaria, a history of fever, and recent travel to a malariaendemic area were compared with 157 matched controls. Antimalarial prophylaxis had been taken by 48% of all patients. Chemoprophylaxis use was correlated with region and purpose of travel. Cases were less likely to have taken prophylaxis (53%) than controls (76%) (odds ratio = 0.35, confidence interval = 0.27, 0.73), even after controlling for region of travel, purpose of travel, and previous exposure to malaria. Chemoprophylaxis was effective in reducing malaria risk. Travel agents and health practitioners should provide all travelers to malaria-endemic areas with adequate information about chemoprophylaxis and its importance.