Evaluation of Risk Factors for House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Brazil

Ana Lucia S. Sgambatti de AndradeInstituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Communicable Disease Program, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Goiania, Goias, Brazil

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Fabio ZickerInstituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Communicable Disease Program, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Goiania, Goias, Brazil

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Renato Mauricio de OliveiraInstituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Communicable Disease Program, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Goiania, Goias, Brazil

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Ionizete Garcia da SilvaInstituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Communicable Disease Program, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Goiania, Goias, Brazil

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Simonne Almeida SilvaInstituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Communicable Disease Program, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Goiania, Goias, Brazil

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Soraya Sgambatti de AndradeInstituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Communicable Disease Program, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Goiania, Goias, Brazil

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Celina M. T. MartelliInstituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Communicable Disease Program, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Goiania, Goias, Brazil

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An active entomologic survey was conducted by a team of trained health workers in a rural area endemic for Chagas' disease in central Brazil. They used pyrethrum as a flushing agent and 4,232 houses were inspected for triatomine bugs both inside and in the immediate environs. Houses with Triatoma infestans or evidence of an established colony were identified and defined as infested houses (cases). The building and environmental characteristics of 161 randomly selected infested houses were compared with 161 matched, noninfested houses (controls) that were the shortest distance from the infested house. Domestic and peridomestic potential risk factors associated with house infestation by Triatoma infestans were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Incomplete house construction (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5–4.1) was confirmed as a risk factor related to the presence or evidence of Triatoma infestans in the dwellings. The study also disclosed a statistically significant association between the presence of rats (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.6) and indoor crop storage (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1–5.2) and house infestation. Further experimental field studies using tagged rodents should be conducted to assess their epidemiologic role in the domestic chain of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission.

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