Factors Associated with Taenia solium Cysticercosis: Analysis of Nine Hundred Forty-Six Peruvian Neurologic Patients

Hector H. GarciaLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Robert H. GilmanLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Marco A. TovarLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Enrique FloresLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Roberto JoLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Victor C. W. TsangLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Fernando DiazLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Patricia TorresLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Elba MirandaLaboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru (CWG)Laboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, A. B. Prisma, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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In most developing countries, 10% of acute neurologic cases are patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC). Determining specific factors associated with contracting NCC will facilitate its diagnosis and prevention. We examined multiple socioeconomic, demographic, environmental, medical, and behavioral characteristics of 946 Peruvian neurologic patients for a correlation with NCC, which was diagnosed by the highly specific and sensitive electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) or immunoblot assay. Eighteen percent (172 of 932) of serum samples and 28% (101 of 362) of cerebrospinal fluid samples were EITB-positive. The proportion of EITB-positive persons was similar for all socioeconomic levels. Significant factors associated with NCC were: 1) being born outside Lima, 2) having raised pigs, 3) more than 20 years of age, 4) a history of seizures, and 5) a history of taeniasis. Of these factors, raising pigs is the only one that is amenable to intervention, via improvements in animal husbandry.

Author Notes

The members of the CWG are J. Narano, G. Herrera, M. Verastegui, G. Madico, T. Montenegro, J. Matsuoka (Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia); A. E. Gonzales, C. Gavidia (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos); J. B. Pilcher (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention); C. Evans (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK); A. Guerron, J. Boero (A. B. Prisma); K. Kacena (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); L. Huffman (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); J. Altamirano, M. Martinez, M. Alvarado, M. Porras, E. Orrillo, G. Alban, L. Trelles, S. Escalante, L. Palomino, N. Rios-Saavedra, J. M. Cuba, H. Estrada, M. Soto (Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas); A. Terashima, J. Cabrera, P. Campos (Hospital Cayetano Heredia); U. Rocca (Hospital Guillermo Almenara).

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