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A longitudinal study on the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antibodies (Ab-CS) was carried out in 15 villages of three epidemiologic areas of Madagascar: the highlands, east coast, and the southwest region. A total of 3,967 blood samples were collected from November 1989 to April 1991 from cohorts of resident schoolchildren. The prevalence of Ab-CS in the examined population varied greatly according to the different ecoepidemiologic areas of the country. A correlation analysis was made between Ab-CS and P. falciparum parasite prevalence in the same population. High Ab-CS prevalence rates (25–75%) and levels (optical density = 0.28–0.76) were observed in the villages of the east coast (mesoendemic stable malaria). The Ab-CS prevalence rates varied from 0 to 37% in the highlands and southwest region villages (unstable malaria). The use of Ab-CS prevalence is proposed to be a useful and reliable seroepidemiologic marker of malaria endemicity in those areas of Madagascar in which malaria transmission is high and continues for more than four months a year.