Use of Sentinel Pigs to Monitor Environmental Taenia solium Contamination

Armando E. GonzalezUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Robert GilmanUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Hector H. GarciaUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Jeff McDonaldUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Katherine KacenaUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Victor C. W. TsangUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Joy B. PilcherUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Francisco SuarezUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Cesar GavidiaUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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Elba MirandaUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru (CWG)Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, AB PRISMA, The Johns Hopkins University, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, University of Utah, University of Michigan, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Immunology Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lima, Peru

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We tested a novel approach to assay Taenia solium prevalence using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay in sentinel piglets to determine environmental contamination with T. solium eggs in a disease-endemic zone in Peru. Twelve sentinel piglets from an area where the disease is not present were tested at two months of age, moved to an area where the disease is endemic, and retested at the of age nine months. Sentinel piglets native from this T. solium-endemic area were also tested concurrently at two and nine months of age. Of the non-native pigs, 33% (4 of 12) acquired new infection. Of the 28 native pigs tested, 64% (18 of 28) acquired the infection. In a subset of the native piglets from seronegative sows, 44% (4 of 9) were infected at five months of age. Serodiagnosis of sentinel piglets is a practical method to detect T. solium eggs in the environment. Furthermore, it permits indirect assessment of human risk, which may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of intervention programs.

Author Notes

The members of the CWG are E. Miranda, J. Naranjo, M. Verastegui, C. Carcamo, T. Montenegro, (Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia); C. Evans (Cambridge University, UK); R. Mantle (North-East Ontario Medical University, Canada); A. E. Gonzales (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos); A. Guerron, A. M. Castro (A.B. PRISMA); L. Trelles, M. Porras, E. Orrillo, S. Escalante, L. Palomino, L. Calagua, G. Alban, N. Rios-Saavedra, E. Garate, H. Martinez, J. M. Cuba, H. Estrada, M. Soto (Instituto Nacional de Ceincias Neurologicas); A. Terashima, J. Cabrera, P. Campos (Hospital Cayetano Heredia); A. Rivara (Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati); U. Rocca (Hospital Guillermo Almenara); M. Castaneda (Hospital Dos de Mayo); M. Lescano M, L. E. Vasquez, L. Samaniego, J. Matsuoka (Instituto de Medicina Tropical de San Martin).

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