Characterization of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Sensu Lato from Three Countries of Neotropical America from Variation in Allozymes and Ribosomal DNA

Jose G. Estrada-FrancoDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Gregory C. LanzaroDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Michael C. MaDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Annie Walker-AbbeyDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Patricia RomansDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Carmen Galvan-SanchezDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Jose Luis CespedesDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Roberto Vargas-SagarnagaDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Andre LaughinghouseDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Ivan ColumbusDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Robert W. GwadzDepartment of Entomology, University of Maryland, Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Laboratory of Malaria Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Secretaria de Salud y Bienestar Social del Estado de Morelos, Ministerio de Prevision Social y Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional de Epidemiologia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, College Park, Maryland, Canada

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Enzyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis sensu lato from nine isolated populations in neotropical America confirmed previous observations that it constitutes a species complex. Electrophoretic studies showed fixed differences at two enzyme loci, glycerol dehydrogenase (Gcd) and phosphoglucomutase (Pgm), suggesting limited or no gene flow between populations from Mexico and South America. In addition, analysis of genetic distance showed two distinctive clusters, one from Mexico and the other from South America, separated at a Nei's distance level of 0.13, a value consistent in magnitude with that of other anopheline sibling species. The RFLP analysis revealed the presence of a ribosomal DNA fragment in Mexican strains that was absent in strains from South America. Two species have been identified through these studies, one provisionally named An. pseudopunctipennis A, a species from central Mexico, and the other An. pseudopunctipennis B, for the species found in the interAndean valleys and Andean slopes in regions of Peru and Bolivia. This research provides information required to elucidate the status of the different species of the An. pseudopunctipennis complex as vectors of malaria in the Americas.

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