Reversal of Chloroquine Resistance in Murine Malaria Parasites by Prostaglandin Derivatives

View More View Less
  • Central Drug Research Institute, Philadelphia Biomedical Research Institute, Lucknow, India

An oligomeric ester of prostaglandin B2 (OC-5186) was found to reverse chloroquine resistance in the murine malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. When mice were infected with either chloroquine-sensitive or -resistant P. berghei on day 0 (by intra-peritoneal injection of 1 × 106 parasitized erythrocytes), they died before day 23. When treated with 15 mg/kg/day of chloroquine for the first four days of infection, all mice infected with the sensitive-strain survived, while all those infected with the resistant strain died before day 23. When OC-5186 (3–12 mg/kg/day) was administered in combination with chloroquine for the first four days, 60% of the animals infected with the resistant strain survived. The differences in the survival rate between the group treated with chloroquine only and the group treated with a combination of drugs (chloroquine plus 3–12 mg/kg/day of OC-5186) were significant. There was also a significant inhibition of parasitemia in the group treated with the combination of drugs. The combinations of chloroquine and a monomer ester of prostaglandin B2 (OC-5181) had some antimalarial activity, but the differences between the chloroquine-treated group and the combination treatment group were not significant in terms of both the parasitemia and the survival rate. Another oligomeric ester of prostaglandin E1 (MR-356) as well as unesterified monomer prostaglandins (PGA2 and PGB2) were ineffective by themselves and in combination with chloroquine.