Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis along the Nile River North of Khartoum (Sudan) in the Aftermath of an Epidemic in 1985

A. Y. Kadaro Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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H. W. Ghalib Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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M. S. Ali Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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I. Eltoum Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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A. Ismail Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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A. Gaafar Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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M. Kemp Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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A. A. Y. Kordofani Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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S. G. Reed Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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A. M. El-Hassan Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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A. Kharazmi Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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M. Hag-Ali Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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M. D. Mustafa Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Juba University, Faculty of Medicine, Wadi El Niel University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Seattle Biomedical Laboratory, Sudan Medical Research Council and the NIH/Sudan Medical Parasitology Research Project, Khartoum, Sudan

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Based on a pilot clinical study of the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) among school children in villages on both banks of the Nile River north of Khartoum, Sudan in the aftermath of a 1985 epidemic, we studied a random sample (303 individuals) from one of these villages to determine the prevalence of infection and exposure to CL. Four percent of the population had active CL lesions, 47% had healed lesions, and another 43% reacted positively to sensitization with leishmanin in the absence of past or active CL lesions. Ninety-one percent of the total population reacted positively to leishmanin. The present status of CL in the area and possible reasons for the emergence of the epidemic are discussed, and gaps in our knowledge about the epidemic are identified.

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